Energy-Based Medical Technologies and Therapies

What is Energy Medicine

Energy Medicine is the use of electromagnetism in medicine for diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and wellness. Nikola Tesla is credited as being the first to publish research results on the use of high frequency electrical currents in medical applications. His benchmark High Frequency Oscillators for Electro-therapeutic and Other Purposes was published in 1898. Since that time, electromedicine has had a checkered history of acceptance by governmental regulatory agencies and the established western medical community.

For energy-based medical practices and therapies such as Qigong and Tai Chi that do not require technology, see Integrative Medicine and Medical Qigong Therapy, Getting Started with Qigong, and Qigong for Cancer. Introductory books, articles, and information on Energy Medicine can be found on Scientific Basis of Qigong and Energy Medicine and Bioenergetic Basis of Life. This page describes the use of electromagnetic technology in medical practice and bioelectromagnetic research.

Integrity Research Institute

Electronic antioxidants produced by bioelectromagnetic therapy can satisfy and terminate free radicals by abundantly supplying the key ingredient usually found only in encapsulated antioxidant supplements...the electron.

Bioelectromagnetic Healing: A Rationale for its Use There are many bioelectromagnetic devices re-emerging in the 21st century, based on high voltage Tesla coils, that apparently bring beneficial health improvements to human organisms. Electromedicine or electromagnetic medicine are the terms applied to such developments in the ELF, RF, IR, visible or UV band. With short term, non-contacting exposures of several minutes at a time, such high voltage Tesla PEMF devices may represent the ideal, non-invasive therapy of the future, accompanied by a surprising lack of harmful side effects. A biophysical rationale for the benefits of BEM healing a wide variety of illnesses including cancer, proposes a correlation between a bioelectromagnetically restores transmembrane potential, and the electron transport across cell membranes by electroportation, with normal cell metabolism and immune system enhancement.

The first 20 pages of Bioelectromagnetic Healing are also online in .PDF form.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Electromedicine. Free radical proliferation is linked to pathological changes that cause cellular malfunction or mutation (i.e. cancer) as well as protein degradation. Free radicals also play a large role in causing damage to all cells of the body but particularly the immune system. Free radicals also deplete cellular energy by interfering with mitochondrial function and contribute to shortened lifespan, according to studies with animal species. Cellular energy generation in the mitochondria is both a key source and key target of oxidative stress in the cells. Seeking an electron to complete the radical, free radicals cause chain reactions as electrons are ripped from molecules, creating another free radical. Cellular energy generation in the mitochondria is both a key source and key target of oxidant stress in the cell. One can therefore envision a model whereby the inevitable increased production of free radicals compromises mitochondrial efficiency and eventually energy output in a detrimental feedback.


The electrical currents set up by the heart, brain, muscles, the retina, and by other tissues and organs give rise to electric fields that are measurable at the surface of the body. These fields are used in medical diagnosis. Energy medicine is the diagnostic and therapeutic use of energy (heat, light, sound, gravity, pressure, vibration, electricity, magnetism, chemical energy, electromagnetism) whether produced by or detected by a medical device or by the human body. Energy medicine recognizes that the human body utilizes various forms of energy for communications involved in physiological regulations. Energy medicine involves energy of particular frequencies and intensities and wave shapes that stimulate the repair of one or more tissues. James Oschman. Theory and Practice of Energy Medicine.


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Magnetic fields from skeletal muscles: a valuable physiological measurement.

pubmed logoElectroceutical Targeting of the Autonomic Nervous SystemAutonomic nerves are attractive targets for medical therapies using electroceutical devices because of the potential for selective control and few side effects. These devices use novel materials, electrode configurations, stimulation patterns, and closed-loop control to treat heart failure, hypertension, gastrointestinal and bladder diseases, obesity/diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. Critical to progress is a mechanistic understanding of multi-level controls of target organs, disease adaptation, and impact of neuromodulation to restore organ function.

Frequency Medicine

Frequency Medicine, Frequency Therapy, Electromedicine, Electrotherapy, Electromagnetic Healing, Bioelectromagnetic Medicine, and Electromagnetic Medicine are all terms applied to the use of portions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) , Radio Frequency (RF), InfraRed (IR), visible light, or Ultra Violet (UV) band to affect the health and well-being of humans. Devices based upon particular frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum have a wide variety of healing and health improvement benefits such as curing illness, relieving pain, and restoring function. These devices which operate by delivering an electromagnetic pulse of a particlar frequency for a particular amount of time have been found to provide the ideal, non-invasive therapy. Frequency Medicine is poised to become a dominant force in medicine in the 21st Century.

For an overview of the medical use of electromagnetic (EM) frequencies for therapy and healing, and specific EM therapeutic methods and tools, see Healing with Electromedicine and Sound Therapies. For even more comprehensive information on energy-based technologies, devices, and their use for therapy, complementary therapies and how to use them, and holistic health, see The Rife Handbook of Frequency Therapy and Holistic Health. logoBioelectromagnetic Medicine: Specific electromagnetic (EM) frequencies modulate cellular function to restore or maintain health. Ultrasmall magnetic intensities are biologically significant which suggests that EM signaling is endogenous to cell regulation, and consequently that the remarkable effectiveness of EM resonance treatments reflects a fundamental aspect of biological systems. Organisms contain mechanisms for generating biologically useful electric signals.

New Therapy for Depression. Using a mild electric current to stimulate the brain has shown promise in several studies.

rife handbook book cover

Frequency therapies can increase cell energy, normalize membrane conductivity, lessen oxidative stress, reduce the amounts of inflammatory chemicals in the blood, improve protein synthesis, boost feel-good endorphin levels, restore depleted adrenal function, and enhance immune function. The restoration of these metabolic processes leads to the regeneration of tissue as well as resistance to disease.

Rife machines, frequency generators, and how to make the body as healthy as possible.

Rife Machine Historical Information website.

A Brief History of the Use of Electricity for Pain Treatment logoNeuromuscular electrostimulation techniques: historical aspects and current possibilities in treatment of pain and muscle waisting. The pain relieving action of electricity is explained in particular by two main mechanisms: first, segmental inhibition of pain signals to the brain in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and second, activation of the descending inhibitory pathway with enhanced release of endogenous opioids and other neurochemical compounds (serotonin, noradrenaline, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), acetylcholine and adenosine). The modern electrotherapy of neuromusculo-skeletal pain is based in particular on the following types: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS or electro-acupuncture) and spinal cord stimulation (SCS).

Energy-Based Medical Technologies and Therapies

Energy-based technologies are accepted by the medical community as essential tools for diagnosis. However, energy therapies, research, and clinical applications and trials have not been as widely embraced (although this is slowly and inexorably changing -- see Western Medicine's Increasing Acceptance of Qigong and Energy Medicine).

The following is a partial list of energy-based technologies and therapies. It is further evidence of the acceptance of Energy Medicine by Western Medicine. For a comprehensive treatment of energy therapies, see The Rife Handbook of Frequency Therapy and Holistic Health.


Inserting needles at particular points in the body to alleviate pain or cure illness by balancing the body's energy. Types of acupuncture include manual acupuncture, electroacupuncture (EA) and transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS). logoLow- and high-frequency transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation induces different effects on cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability. Systematic studies have demonstrated that acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia is based on their accelerating endogenous opioid release to activate opioid receptors and that EA of different frequencies is mediated by different opioid receptors in specific areas of the central nervous system.

Acupuncture and Cancer.


Electrical stimulation of the ear to treat health conditions in other parts of the body.

Bioelectical Impedance Analysis (BIA), Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA)

BIA and BIVA are non-invasive methods utilizing passing an electrical current through the body to measure body composition. logoL-dex ratio in detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema: reliability, sensitivity, and specificity. Advances in bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) permit the assessment of lymphedema by directly measuring lymph fluid changes. The objective of the study was to examine the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of cross-sectional assessment of BIA in detecting lymphedema in a large metropolitan clinical setting. BIA was used to measure lymph fluid changes. Limb volume by sequential circumferential tape measurement was used to validate the presence of lymphedema. logoBioimpedance vector pattern in women with breast cancer detected by bioelectric impedance vector analysis. Preliminary observations. The study was conducted to evaluate soft tissue hydration and mass through pattern analysis of vector plots as height, normalized resistance, and reactance measurements by bioelectric impedance vector analysis (BIVA) in patients with breast cancer. logoFluid management in the intensive care unit: bioelectrical impedance vector analysis as a tool to assess hydration status and optimal fluid balance in critically ill patients.


The generation of electricity by living organisms. A nerve impluse is an example.


See Gas Discharge Visualization.

Biophoton Autography

A method for detecting biophotons at the cellular level. Biophotons as neural communication signals demonstrated by in situ biophoton autography.


The interaction between biological items and photons.


Electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB). logoSummary of the British Thoracic Society Guidelines for advanced diagnostic and therapeutic flexible bronchoscopy in adults. The guideline covers transbronchial needle aspiration and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, electrocautery/diathermy, argon plasma coagulation and thermal laser, cryotherapy, cryoextraction, photodynamic therapy, brachytherapy, tracheobronchial stenting, electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy, endobronchial valves for emphysema and bronchial thermoplasty for asthma.


See Light Therapy.

Colored Light Therapy (Chromotherapy)

See Light Therapy.


See Laser Therapy.

Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT/CT), X-ray Computed Tomography (CT)

Combines multiple x-rays via computers to create 3-dimensional images of parts of the body. One specific implementation is Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). Chinese researchers have used SPECT technology to show the beneficial effects of eletroacupunture for treating childrens autism. Although CT scans are the most accurate diagnostic technology for certain conditions, they can also expose patients to the risk of excessive or unnecessary radiation. logoIdentification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in lung cancer screening computed tomographic scans. Journal of the American Medical Association. logoFirst clinical trial of tomographic neurofeedback in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evaluation of voluntary cortical control.

Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT)

Also known as Diffuse Optical Imaging and Near Infrared Optical Tomography. See Optical imaging - Wikipedia.

Diffuse Tensor Imaging (DTI) logo

The effect of Tai Chi practice on brain white matter structure: a diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures the displacement of water molecules across tissue components and thus provides information on the microstructure of brain white matter. This study examined the effect of Tai Chi and the relation of Tai Chi experiences and skills with brain white matter.

Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)

Most common test for measuring bone mineral density. Also see Radiographic absoptiometry.

Electrical Impedence Tomography (EIT)

A non-invasive medical imaging technique.

fEITER – a new EIT instrument for functional brain imaging.  fEITER integrates an EIT sub-system with an evoked response sub-system capable of providing visual, auditory or other stimuli, and the timing of each stimulus is recorded within the EIT data to a resolution of 500 microseconds. logoPatient examinations using electrical impedance tomography-sources of interference in the intensive care unit. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is expected to become a valuable tool for monitoring mechanically ventilated patients due to its ability to continuously assess regional lung ventilation and aeration.

Electrical Properties Tomography (EPT) logoRecent progress and future challenges in MR electric properties tomography. MR Electric Properties Tomography (EPT) is a lately developed medical imaging modality capable of visualizing both conductivity and permittivity of the patient .

Electroacupuncture According to Voll (EAV)

The use of electrodes and low-voltage currents in conjunction with acupunture points.

Electrocardiogram (EKG/ECG)

Measures the electrical current of the heart.

Electrochemotherapy (ECT)

Wikipedia: Electrochemotherapy is a type of chemotherapy that allows delivery of non-permeant drugs to the cell interior. It is based on the local application of short and intense electric pulses that transiently permeabilize the cell membrane, thus allowing transport of molecules otherwise not permitted by the membrane. Also see electroporation.

Electro-crystal Therapy

Electro-crystal therapy uses pulsed high-frequency EM stimulation of crystals to balance the human energy field.

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Electroencephalography measures the electrical current of the brain. Intracranial EEG (iEEG) is a particular application of this technology where the electrodes are actually inserted into the brain. It is being used, for example, with epilepsy patients. Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) can be performed on the EEG recordings to compute the intracortical distribution of neuroelectrical activity. logoDynamics of electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening. Signals recorded from the surface of the brain (electrocorticography (ECoG)) encode information about the sound intensity of music. ECoG activity in the high gamma band recorded from the posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus as well as from an isolated area in the precentral gyrus was observed to be highly correlated with the sound intensity of music.

Electrogastrogram (EGG) logoInfluence of body parameters on gastric bioelectric and biomagnetic fields in a realistic volume conductor. Also see Magnetogastrogram.

Electrohydraulic Lithotripsy (EHL)

A flexible probe breaks up small kidney stones with shock waves generated by electricity.

Electromagnetic Acoustic Imaging (EMAI)

Electromagnetic acoustic imaging (EMAI) is a new imaging technique that uses long-wavelength RF electromagnetic (EM) waves to induce ultrasound emission. See Ultrasound.

Electromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscopy (ENB) logoElectromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscopy Performed by Thoracic Surgeons: One Center's Early Success. logoElectromagnetic Navigational Bronchoscopy. Electromagnetic bronchoscopy (ENB) is an emerging technology that allows the practitioner the ability to both sample and treat small peripheral pulmonary lesions. In experienced centers, ENB provides high rates of diagnostic yield for small lesions and a complication rate significantly lower than that of more conventional diagnostic modalities.

Electromyography (EMG)

Measures electrical activity generated by muscles.

Electron Holography

Electron Holography Produces First Image of a Single Protein. This research demonstrates the imaging of proteins using low energy electron beams that don't destroy biomolecules. Low energy electron beams have a wavelength of about a nanometer with is perfect for measuring proteins as well as holography.

Electron Microscopy

Microscopy using an electron beam instead of light to form an image. An electron microscope (EM) is a type of microscope that uses an electron beam to illuminate a specimen and produce a magnified image.

Electro-Photonic Imaging (EPI)

See GDV.


The study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.


Wikipedia: Electroporation, or electropermeabilization, is a significant increase in the electrical conductivity and permeability of the cell plasma membrane caused by an externally applied electrical field. It is usually used in molecular biology as a way of introducing some substance into a cell, such as loading it with a molecular probe, a drug that can change the cell's function, or a piece of coding DNA. logoMicrosecond and nanosecond electric pulses in cancer treatments. New local treatments based on electromagnetic fields have been developed as non-surgical and minimally invasive treatments of tumors. In particular, short electric pulses can induce important non-thermal changes in cell physiology, especially the permeabilization of the cell membrane.

Also see Gene electrotransfer and Electrochemotherapy which are two types of electroporation.

Electro-scanning Method (ESM)

ESM uses sound and radio frequencies to create three-dimensional numerical information in decibel levels about a subject's energy field.

Electroshock Therapy (ECT)

Also called electroconvulsive therapy. This is administered to patients under anesthesia. Also see Transcranial direct current stimulation.

Endobroncial Ultrasound (EBUS)

See Ultrasound.

External Beam Radiation Therapy

See Radiation Therapy.

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) or Technology (ESWT)

Highly focused sound (shock) waves projected from outside the body pulverize kidney stones anywhere in the urinary system. Also see Ultrasound.

EWST has proven effective for tendon and ligament injuries, wound healing, osteoarthritis and degenerative joint disease, removal of kidney stones, treating plantar faschitis and rotator cuff injuries, and more. PulseVet has been very successful on animals, and it has been successful with humans too. logo

Extracorporeal shock wave therapy as an adjunct wound treatment: a systematic review of the literature.

Also see Shockwave Therapy.

Fluorescence imaging and Fluoresence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Microscopy logoDeep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light. Fluoresence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is a photophysical process that can be exploited to obtain highly sensitive information about protein-protein interactions. FRET is a phenomenon in which energy is transferred between two appropriate fluorophores called donor and acceptor that are in proper orientation and distance (usually, <10 nm). logoFluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy imaging of live cell protein localizations. The current advances in fluorescence microscopy, coupled with the development of new fluorescent probes, make fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) a powerful technique for studying molecular interactions inside living cells with improved spatial (angstrom) and temporal (nanosecond) resolution, distance range, and sensitivity and a broader range of biological applications. logoQuantitative intensity-based FRET approaches--a comparative snapshot. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has become an important tool for analyzing different aspects of interactions among biological macromolecules in their native environments. FRET analysis has also been successfully applied to study the spatiotemporal regulation of various cellular processes using genetically encoded FRET-based biosensors.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

Diagnostic technique for obtaining images of soft body tissue via magnetic fields and the radio waves generated by them. logoImaging the functional connectivity of the Periaqueductal Gray during genuine and sham electroacupuncture treatment. fcMRI carries MRI a step further by monitoring continuous treatment activity instead of brief and intermittent activity. fcMRI was used to characterize the difference in connectivity in key brain regions due to genuine vs. sham acupuncture. The intrinsic functional connectivity changes among key brain regions in the pain matrix and default mode network during genuine EA compared with sham EA. We speculate that continuous genuine EA stimulation can modify the coupling of spontaneous activity in brain regions that play a role in modulating pain perception.

Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) - University of Michigan Functional MRI Laboratory. Brain regions associated with meditation-related anxiety relief were found to be remarkably consistent with the principles of being mindful. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify brain regions activated during meditation. Arterial spin labeling allows the weighting of the fMRI signal by the actual cerebral blood flow.

What does that MRI signal MEAN, anyway?

See also MRI.

Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV)

Bioelectrography is a new and controversial field within physics whose purpose is to study the electric emissions of objects and living organisms. The method used in bioelectrography is called the Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV) technique. It is a more advanced technique than Kirlian photography and has been accepted as a medical technology by the Russian Ministry of Health. It creates a computer model inreal time of the energies measured by GDV, and is thought to be able to perceive 'imbalances' in energy fields which can then be used as a tool for medical diagnosis.

Technically, GDV is capturing the image of gas discharge during exposure to EMF. The cells exposed to the EMF produce a burst of electron-ion emission and optical radiation light quanta in the visual and ultraviolet light regions of the EM spectrum. These particles and photons initiate electron-ion avalanches, which create the gas discharge along the dielectric surface. A spatial distribution of discharge channels is registered via glass plate by an optical system with a CCD TV camera, and then it is digitized. The avalanche effect amplification of the object response can only occur in ionized gas and does not work in a vacuum. logoStress Reduction with Osteopathy Assessed with GDV Electrophotonic Imaging: Effects of Osteopathy Treatment. Gas Discharge Visualization camera used to assess subjects before and after osteopathy treatment.

GDV is also called Electro-Photonic Imaging (EPI).

Gel Electrophoresis

A method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.

Gene Electrotranser

Gene electrotranser enables transer of genetic material into cells. It is based on electroporation.

High Tone External Muscle Stimulation (HTEMS)

HTEMS is a form of electrostimulation. logoNeuromuscular electrostimulation techniques: historical aspects and current possibilities in treatment of pain and muscle waisting. The modern electrotherapy of neuromusculo- skeletal pain is based in particular on the following types: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS or electro-acupuncture) and spinal cord stimulation (SCS). In mild to moderate pain, TENS and PENS are effective methods, whereas SCS is very useful for therapy of refractory neuropathic or ischemic pain. In 2005, high tone external muscle stimulation (HTEMS) was introduced. In diabetic peripheral neuropathy, its analgesic action was more pronounced than TENS application. HTEMS appeared also to have value in the therapy of symptomatic peripheral neuropathy in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Besides its pain-relieving effect, electrical stimulation is of major importance for prevention or treatment of muscle dysfunction and sarcopenia. In controlled clinical studies electrical myostimulation (EMS) has been shown to be effective against the sarcopenia of patients with chronic congestive heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ESRD.

Intravital Microscopy

Imaging of live animals at microscopic resolution (intravital microscopy, IVM) represents a powerful tool for addressing such questions. IVM can reveal cellular responses over time and space and can be conducted under conditions closely approximating those of a natural environment. This is crucial because cellular behavior is influenced by many factors including cytokine gradients, interactions with other cellular and extracellular components, anatomical compartmentaliza- tion, and forces of fluid flow. logoRecent advances in intravital imaging of dynamic biological systems. Intravital multiphoton microscopy has opened a new era in the field of biological imaging. Focal excitation of fluorophores by simultaneous attack of multiple (normally "two") photons generates images with high spatial resolution, and use of near-infrared lasers for multiphoton excitation allows penetration of thicker specimens, enabling biologists to visualize living cellular dynamics deep inside tissues and organs without thin sectioning.


Iontophoresis is the introduction of ionizable drugs through intact skin by the administration of continuous, direct electrical current into the tissues of the body.

Laser Doppler Flowmetry

Measures blood flow based on the laser Doppler principle.

Qigong and Energy Medicine Database™


Light Therapy, Low-Intensity Light Therapy (LILT), Laser Therapy, Low Level Light Therapy (LLLT)

pubmed logoSince 2015, the acronym LLLT has been replaced by the term PBM (Photobiomodulation), based upon the difficulty of expressing “low level” as a defined quantity range. See photobiomodulation section in Physical energies to the rescue of damaged tissues [PMC6600852]. The biological responses elicited by PBM raise the major question as to whether our cells may also use and process electromagnetic signals by themselves, instead of only sensing an exogenously applied electromagnetic radiation (light). A positive answer to this question came from the seminal discovery of Guenter Albrecht-Buehler in 1992.

pubmed logoLow power lasers on genomic stability. Although the mechanisms are not well understood yet, low power lasers could be effective against DNA harmful agents by induction of DNA repair mechanisms and modulation of telomere maintenance and genomic stability.

pubmed logo Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation.


pubmed logoPre-conditioning with low-level laser (light) therapy: light before the storm. The damage caused by surgery, heart attack, or stroke can be mitigated by pre-treating the local or distant tissue with low levels of a stress-inducing stimulus, that can induce a protective response against subsequent major damage. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been used for nearly 50 years to enhance tissue healing and to relieve pain, inflammation and swelling.

"Photonic stimulation sounds like “Star Trek” medicine -- something out of the future that seems too far-fetched to exist in today’s world. However, quantum healing with near infrared light photons is a reality today and is poised to become an essential technology in medical practice for years to come. This powerful, effective, safe, and affordable technology is revolutionizing medical treatment for pain, many neurological disorders, and a wide variety of musculoskeletal and soft tissue maladies. Many health problems that had previously been notoriously difficult or even impossible to successfully manage can now benefit from photonic stimulation." This therapy is being used in diabetic and other neuropathies, sports and other injuries, plantar fascitis, cervical and lumbar disc disease, repetitive stress injuries, postoperataive pain, fibromyalgia, carpal tunnel syndrome, osteoarthritis, and other conditions." Dr. Len Saputo on infrared light therapy.

pubmed logoRed/near-infrared irradiation therapy for treatment of central nervous system injuries and disorders. R/NIR irradiation therapy (R/NIR-IT) has not been widely adopted in clinical practice for CNS injury or disease for a number of reasons, which include the following. The mechanism/s of action and implications of penetration have not been thoroughly addressed. The large range of treatment intensities, wavelengths and devices that have been assessed make comparisons difficult, and a consensus paradigm for treatment has not yet emerged. Furthermore, the lack of consistent positive outcomes in randomised controlled trials, perhaps due to sub-optimal treatment regimens, has contributed to scepticism. This review provides a balanced précis of outcomes described in the literature regarding treatment modalities and efficacy of R/NIR-IT for injury and disease in the CNS.

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Low level laser therapy for sports injuries. The therapy has been found effective for Jumper's knee, tennis elbow and Achilles tendinitis.

pubmed logoLow-level laser therapy at acupuncture points aids treatment of knee osteoarthritis. The results demonstrate that short-term application of LLLT to specific acupuncture points in association with exercise and advice is effective in reducing pain and improving quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

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Nanosurgery of cells and chromosomes using near-infrared twelve-femtosecond laser pulses. Laser-assisted surgery based on multiphoton absorption of near-infrared laser light has great potential for high precision surgery at various depths within the cells and tissues.

Light as Medicine? Scientists have known for years that certain wavelengths of light in certain doses can heal, but they are only now uncovering exactly how it works. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee researchers have shown near-infrared and blue light can successfully treat MS symptoms, clear infections, and reduce inflammation.

Diagnosis Just a Breath Away with New Laser. University of Adelaide physics researchers have developed a new type of laser that will enable exciting new advances in the detection of very low concentrations of gases. Research has shown that with various diseases, minute amounts of gases not normally exhaled can be detected in the breath; for example, acetone can be detected in the breath when someone has diabetes.Laser Acupuncture. Also called Laserneedle Acupuncture and laserpuncture. Light is focused on acupuncture and other points on the skin to stimulate healing. In general the use of lasers for healing is referred to as Low-Intensity Laser Therapy (LILT) or Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT). 

Cellular Mechanisms of Low Power Laser Therapy. Colored light threapy is being used by physiotherapists (to treat a wide variety of acute and chronic muscosceletal aches and pains), dentists (to treat inflamed oral tissues, and to heal diverse ulcerations), dermatologists (to treat oedema, indolent ulcers, burns, dermatitis), rheumatologists (relief of pain, treatment of chronic inflammations and autoimmune diseases), and by other specialists (e.g., for treatment of middle and inner ear diseases, nerve regeneration). Photobiomodulation is also used in veterinary medicine (especially in racehorse training centers) and in sports medicine and rehabilitation clinics (to reduce swelling and hematoma, relief of pain and improvement of mobility and for treatment of acute soft tissue Dinshah Health Society. A Non-Profit Organization Dedicated to Advancing Non-Pharmaceutical Home color Therapy.

Colored Light Therapy: Overview of its History, Theory, Recent Developments and Clinical Applications Combined with Acupuncture. logo

The effect of colored illumination on heart rate variability. Results show that colored light can influence HRV within minutes and that the effects of individual colors can be distinguished by HRV logo

The impact of modulated, colored light on the autonomic nervous system. Different colors of modulated light were found to result in different autonomic nervous system effects, including changes in heart rate and heart rate variability.

pubmed logoElectromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) produce non-thermal and other EMF effects, such that the L-type or other VGCC blockers block or greatly lower diverse EMF effects. Furthermore, the voltage-gated properties of these channels may provide biophysically plausible mechanisms for EMF biological effects.

pubmed logoTargeted therapies using electrical and magnetic neural stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain in spinal cord injury. Chronic pain in SCI is disabling and resistant to common pharmacologic approaches. Electrical and magnetic neural stimulation techniques have been developed to offer a potential tool in the management of these patients.

pubmed logoCommunication and the Emergence of Collective Behavior in Living Organisms: A Quantum Approach. This paper reviews the proposals given within the paradigm of modern molecular biology and those given by some holistic approaches to biology. In recent times, the collective behavior of ensembles of atoms and molecules has been addressed in the conceptual framework of Quantum Field Theory. The possibility of producing physical states where all the components of the ensemble move in unison has been recognized. In such cases, electromagnetic fields trapped within the ensemble appear. In the present paper we present a scheme based on Quantum Field Theory where molecules are able to move in phase-correlated unison among them and with a self-produced electromagnetic field.

Low Intensity Light Therapy has been shown to induce cellular effects such as accelerated ATP production and the mitigation of oxidative stress. Also referred to as Infrared Light Therapy. Low-power laser therapy is also called Photobiomodulation.

Biophoton Detection and Low-Intensity Light Therapy: A Potential Clinical Partnership. Low-intensity light therapy (LILT) is showing promise in the treatment of a wide variety of medical conditions.

Low Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS)

see Ultrasound.

Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH) Therapy logoMagnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) therapy uses the magnetic component of electromagnetic fields in the radiofrequency spectrum to couple energy to magnetic nanoparticles inside tumors. In MFH therapy, magnetic fluid is injected into tumors and an alternating current (AC) magnetic flux is applied to heat the magnetic fluid- filled tumor. If the temperature can be maintained at the therapeutic threshold of 42°C for 30 minutes or more, the tumor cells can be destroyed.

Magnetic Induction Phase Shift (MIPS) logoDetection of acute cerebral hemorrhage in rabbits by magnetic induction. Acute cerebral hemorrhage (ACH) is an important clinical problem that is often monitored and studied with expensive devices such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. These devices are not readily available in economically underdeveloped regions of the world, emergency departments, and emergency zones. We have developed a less expensive tool for non-contact monitoring of ACH. This high-sensitivity system could detect a 1-mL change in blood volume.

Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT) logoHardware and software design for a National Instrument-based magnetic induction tomography system for prospective biomedical applications. Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a new and emerging type of tomography technique that is able to map the passive electromagnetic properties (in particular conductivity) of an object.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structures.

What does that MRI signal MEAN, anyway?

Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy

Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) is an imaging technique that acquires magnetic resonance images (MRI) at nanometer scales.

MRI Technology Reveals Deep Brain Pathways in Unprecedented Detail.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) maps brain activity while the subject is performing a particlar task. logoProton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in depression. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a unique technique that can directly assess the concentration of various biochemical metabolites in body tissue. For example, see

New Way to Predict Prognosis in Patients with Heart Failure. Researchers found a novel approach to predict outcomes in heart failure patients by imaging impaired energy metabolism in a diseased heart. logoParser Combinators: a Practical Application for Generating Parsers for NMR Data discusses the creation of new computer programs that can analyze MRI-derived data residing in the BMRB (Bio-Magnetic Resonance Data Bank) and determine the a protein's three-dimensional structure. logoImaging the functional connectivity of the Periaqueductal Gray during genuine and sham electroacupuncture treatment. fcMRI carries MRI a step further by monitoring continuous treatment activity instead of brief and intermittent activity. fcMRI was used to characterize the difference in connectivity in key brain regions due to genuine vs. sham acupuncture. Our findings indicate the intrinsic functional connectivity changes among key brain regions in the pain matrix and default mode network during genuine EA compared with sham EA. We speculate that continuous genuine EA stimulation can modify the coupling of spontaneous activity in brain regions that play a role in modulating pain perception.

Diffusion MRI (dMRI) maps diffusion patterns of water molecules. An example use can be found in logoBridging the hemispheres in meditation: Thicker callosal regions and enhanced fractional anisotropy (FA) in long-term practitioners. logoRapid Mood-Elevating Effects of Low Field Magnetic Stimulation in Depression. Low field magnetic stimulation may produce rapid changes in mood using a previously unexplored range of electromagnetic fields. logoToward a brain functional connectivity mapping modality by simultaneous imaging of coherent brainwaves. Matching the proton-magnetic-resonance frequency to the frequency of a periodic neural oscillation (e.g., alpha or gamma band waves) by magnetic resonance imaging techniques, enables direct visualization of brain functional connectivity.

High-tech 'whole body' scan could improve treatment of bone marrow cancer. A pioneering scanning technique that can image a patient's entire body can reveal where cancer is affecting the bones and guide doctors in their choice of treatment.

Also see Dangers of Electromagnetic Pollution: MRI.


The measurement of magnetic fields over the head  which are generated by electrical currents in the brain

Magnetogastrogram (MGG) logoInfluence of body parameters on gastric bioelectric and biomagnetic fields in a realistic volume conductor. Also see Electrogastrogram and magnetogastrography.


Bioelectromagnetic Platform for Cell, Tissue, and In Vivo Stimulation. Magnetogenetics is a new field that utilizes electromagnetic fields to remotely control cellular activity. In addition to the development of the biological genetic tools, this approach requires designing hardware with a specific set of demands for the electromagnets used to provide the desired stimulation for electrophysiology and imaging experiments. The rapid growth of research interest in magnetogenetics in the past decade has resulted in a broad range of bioelectromagnetic stimulation applications [1], creating a demand for sophisticated stimulus delivery systems. Many biological systems can be magnetically stimulated to regulate gene expression or neural activity, and stimulation parameters can vary significantly depending on the mechanisms employed to elicit responses. In contrast to visible light, low frequency and DC magnetic fields easily penetrate soft tissue and bone, potentially allowing for minimally invasive and wireless stimulation [PMCID: PMC8392012]. 

Mass Spectrometry

Vanderbilt Team First to Blend High-End Imaging Techniques. Vanderbilt University researchers have achieved the first “image fusion” of mass spectrometry and microscopy. Combining the best features of both imaging modalities allows scientists to see the molecular make-up of tissues in high resolution.

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI)

A technique for visualizing proteins, lipids and other molecules in cells and tissues.

Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences

Microcurrent Electrotherapy Technology (MET) and Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES)

Used by professional sports teams and others to treat psychological and physical symptoms; by pain specialists to treat pain disorders; and by rheumatologists who see dramatic results with fibromyalgia patients. CES has been found as effective as prescription drugs in relieving pain, but is completely safe.

Microwave Imaging

Microwave Imaging in Medicine: Promises and Future Challenges. Medical microwave imaging has been the ultimate goal of numerous electromagnetic sensing explorations over the past several decades. The concept of using of non-ionizing microwave-frequency electromagnetic waves to image the human body – that is, to image the microwave dielectric properties or microwave scattering and absorption characteristics of tissue – has intrigued engineers and clinicians alike. The dielectric properties of human tissue are influenced by physiological factors of clinical interest, such as water content, temperature, and vascularization. Low-power microwaves can be used to sense and image these properties in a low-cost manner that poses no health risk to the patient. logo

Three-dimensional thermoacoustic imaging for early breast cancer detection. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is a noninvasive modality based on the differences in microwave absorption of various biological tissues. In this paper, the feasibility of the early breast tumor detection by TAT system has been discussed and validated experimentally.

Microwave Radar

Used by researchers to measure the high-frequency power spectrum of heart rate variability which indicates parasympathetic nervous system activity. logoBreast monitoring via time-domain microwave radar: Early clinical trial study.

Microwave Radiometry logo

Microwave radiometry: a new non-invasive method for the detection of vulnerable plaque.

Microwave Thermotherapy logoMicrowave thermotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) has been the gold-standard treatment for alleviating urinary symptoms and improving urinary flow in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, the morbidity of TURP approaches 20%, and less invasive techniques have been developed for treating BPH. Preliminary data suggest that microwave thermotherapy, which delivers microwave energy to produce coagulation necrosis in prostatic tissue, is a safe, effective treatment for BPH.


See Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Multiphoton Laser Tomography (MLT)

A tool for non-invasive diagnostics in dermatology and other medical specialties.

Nanosecond Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (nsPEFs)

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields act as a novel cellular stress that induces translational suppression accompanied by eIF2α phosphorylation and 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation. As opposed to conventional electric fields used for DNA electroporation, nsPEFs can directly reach intracellular components without membrane destruction.

Near Infrared Optical Tomography (NIROT)

See Diffuse Optical Tomography.

Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS)

NIRS probes have been used in energy medicine research to measure psysiological changes such as muscle blood volume and muscle oxygenation resulting from acupuncture stimulation. Infrared spectroscopy is a more general term for this subset of spectroscopy. Also see Vibrational spectroscopy. logoAutomatic detection of a prefrontal cortical response to emotionally rated music using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. NIRS provides an opportunity for bed-side monitoring of emotions via measurement of hemodynamic activity in the prefrontal cortex, a brain region known to be involved in emotion processing:

New Imaging Technique Speeds Removal of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers. It provides same accuracy as current “gold standard” minus the lengthy wait.

Researchers Developing New Approach for Imaging Dense Breasts for Abnormalities. Refinements Made to Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) during Clinical MRI. logoNear-infrared light-mediated nanoplatforms for cancer thermo-chemotherapy and optical imaging. The state of the art of nanoparticle-induced thermo-chemotherapy is summarized and the advantages and challenges of the major nanoplatforms based on gold nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, palladium nanosheets, and copper-based nanocrystals are highlighted. In addition, the optical-imaging potentials of the nanoplatforms that may endow them with imaging-guided therapy and therapeutic-result-monitoring capabilities are also briefly discussed.


A battery powered device that delivers electrical stimulation to the brain.

Oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopic (OIDRS) logoIn vivo diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer using oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry. A non-invasive system for diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

Optical Imaging logoOptical magnetic imaging of living cells. This research demonstrates magnetic imaging of living cells under ambient laboratory conditions and with sub-cellular spatial resolution (400 nanometres), using an optically detected magnetic field imaging array consisting of a nanometre-scale layer of nitrogen-vacancy colour centres implanted at the surface of a diamond chip.

New Imaging Technique Speeds Removal of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers. Provides same accuracy as current “gold standard” minus the lengthy wait

Optical Coherence Tomography

Microscopy is usually done in a laboratory on carefully prepared very thin samples and achieves resolutions better than micrometers. Medical imaging, by contrast, is usually performed on sizeable portions of the living human body, and resolutions are rarely better than 1 millimeter.
Over the last decade, there has been great progress in applying optical microscopy techniques to the human body in a medical setting. This push has been led by optical coherence tomography, which is now in mainstream use in ophthalmology and is soon to gain acceptance in cardiology. Optical coherence tomography is an optical analog of ultrasound – but it penetrates much less and resolves much more.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical signal acquisition and processing method. It captures micrometer-resolution, three-dimensional images from within optical scattering media (e.g., biological tissue). Optical coherence tomography is an interferometric technique, typically employing near-infrared light.


Optogenetics is creating light-responsive mammalian tissue via insertion of a DNA encoding for a light-sensitive protein. One example is controlling circuits in the brain with pulses of visible light. Another is creating heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) for use with light-based pacemakers: Researchers Create First Human Heart Cells Paced With Light. Watch a short video describing optogenetics: Method of the Year 2010: Optogenetics - by Nature Video logoOptogenetic neuronal stimulation promotes functional recovery after stroke. These results demonstrate that stimulation of neurons in the stroke hemisphere is sufficient to promote recovery. logoOptogenetics, the intersection between physics and neuroscience: light stimulation of neurons in physiological conditions. Neuronal stimulation by light is a novel approach in the emerging field of optogenetics, where genetic engineering is used to introduce light-activated channels. However, light is also capable of stimulating neurons even in the absence of genetic modifications through a range of physical and biological mechanisms. As a result, rigorous design of optogenetic experiments needs to take note of alternative and parallel effects of light illumination of neuronal tissues. Thus all matters relating to light penetration are critical to the development of studies using light-activated proteins. This paper discusses ways to quantify light, light penetration in tissue, as well as light stimulation of neurons in physiological conditions. We also describe the direct effect of light on neurons investigated at different sites.


A device that uses electrical pulses to control abnormal heart rhythms.

Percutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

Percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) is a novel analgesic therapy that combines the advantages of both TENS and electroacupuncture by using acupuncturelike needle probes positioned in the soft tissues and/or muscles to stimulate peripheral sensory nerves at the dermatomal levels corresponding to the local pathology. In a preliminary study, PENS therapy was found to be preferable to TENS and relaxation therapies in the management of pain secondary to osteoarthritis.

Photoacoustic Imaging

Improving Imaging of Cancerous Tissues by Reversing Time. Current high-resolution optical imaging technology allows researchers to see about 1 millimeter deep into the body. Beyond that, the light scatters and obscures the features, which is why we can’t see bones or tissue in the hand with a flashlight. To overcome this, Wang and his lab developed photoacoustic imaging, which combines light with acoustic waves, or sound, to form a sharper image, even several centimeters into the skin.


See Low-level light therapy (LLLT).

Photochemical Internalization (PCI) logoLight directed delivery of nucleic acids to cells. Targeted delivery of therapy to specific cells or tissues. logo

Photochemical internalization (PCI): a technology for drug delivery.


The use of light in health and treating disease. logoHarnessing the Power of Light to Treat Staphylococcal Infections Focusing on MRSA.


Photon Migration Spectroscopy

Non-invasive technique utilizing light to create images of tissues. logoNon-Invasive In Vivo Characterization of Breast Tumors Using Photon Migration Spectroscopy. Frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) is a non-invasive optical technique that utilizes intensity-modulated, near-infrared (NIR) light to quantitatively measure optical properties in thick tissues. The metabolic demands of hormonal stimulation and cancer tumor growth are detectable using photon migration techniques. Preliminary studies show that unique breast tumor optical signatures are, in fact, detectable in human subjects. Measurements provide quantitative optical property values that reflect changes in tissue perfusion, oxygen consumption, and cell/matrix development.

Photonic Stimulation

Near infrared light therapy. Electrons are excited to increase production of energy (ATP) to stimulate normal cellular physiology.

Healing With Photons. Scientists believe that the mechanism of action of photonic stimulation is related to its ability to excite electrons within the mitochondria of cells in injured tissues. This process is thought to enable malfunctioning cells to resume production of ATP and stimulate the return of normal cellular physiology. Accompanying this is a more normal regulation of the autonomic nervous system and an increase in blood flow to injured tissues. A number of conditions have been successfully managed via this therapy.

See Light Therapy.

Photon Resonant Light Emission Technology

See Rife Machine.


A photoplethysmograph (PPG) is an optically obtained plethysmograph, which measures the volume of an organ or the entire body.

Phototherapy logoPhototherapy in the age of biologics. Electromagnetic waves (phototherapy) found safe and effective for treating skin conditions. Phototherapy is a valuable option in the treatment of many nonpsoriatic conditions including atopic dermatitis, sclerosing skin conditions such as morphea, vitiligo, and mycosis fungoides. Due to its relative safety, phototherapy may be used in most populations, including children and pregnant women.

Also see Light Therapy.

Photothermal Ablation

Photothermal Ablation uses nanoparticles excited by light to burn away cancer cells. Metal nanoparticles have molecular appendages called ligands attached to them. The ligands then attach exclusively to chemical receptors on cancerous cells. When irradiated with infrared light, collective electron oscillations (plasmons) begin to resonate and the metal nanoparticles heat up, burning away the cancerous cells while leaving the surrounding healthy tissue unaffected. Reference: Plasmons resonate in atomic-scale metal particles.

Phototrichogenesis logoUtilizing electromagnetic radiation for hair growth: a critical review of phototrichogenesis. The utilization of electromagnetic radiation for hair growth.

Poly-contrast Interference Photography (PIP)

Digital images of the human energy field. What are PIP Scans?

"PIP shows pulsating bands of color and changing variations in light quality emanating from living organisms.... In humans, these images tend to correspond to energy meridian pathways, defined by traditional Chinese medicine, and chakras, defined by Ayurvedic medicine.... PIP technology is able to pinpoint disturbed energy states before they become evident by standard diagnosis." Townsend Letter, 2009 Jan; (306): 37.

Polychromatic Spectroscopy logo

Polychromatic spectral pattern analysis of ultra-weak photon emissions from a human body. Filter-type spectroscopy technique, used as a conventional method for UPE (Ultra-weak photon emission) analysis, intrinsically limits its performance because of its monochromatic scheme. To overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, the authors developed a polychromatic spectroscopy system for UPE spectral pattern analysis. It is based on a highly efficient lens systems and a transmission-type diffraction grating with a highly sensitive, cooled, charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

A computerized imaging technique that utilizes a radioactive dye. This type of imaging may reveal tissue problems that are not visible on CT or MRI scans.

Proteomics (the study of proteins)

This technology is based upon mass spectrometry coupled with hyphenated separation techniques such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and micro- or nano-scale multidimensional liquid chromatography. The technique of proteomics is one of the fastest developments with the farthest-reaching consequences in the high and new biotechnology in the world of today. It can be used to screen the target molecules of the action of traditional Chinese medicines, to identify the new effective components from traditional Chinese medicines, and to explore the mechanisms of the effects of traditional Chinese medicines. More on Proteomics.

Proton Therapy

Proton therapy is an innovative form of radiation treatment that allows for more conformed radiation doses delivered to cancerous tumors. Radiation therapy, while helpful in treating the tumor, often comes with side effects, some of which can be very harmful to growing and developing children. Proton therapy’s greatest benefit is that it is less damaging to the surrounding healthy tissue because it delivers most of its energy to a very narrow field at the location of the tumor.

Pulse light irradiation

For chloasma, the effect of treatment with acupuncture plus intensive pulse light irradiation is superior to that with simple acupuncture.

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) Therapy

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation in Osteogenesis and Chondrogenesis: Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Implications.  Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main cell players in tissue repair and thanks to their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation capabilities, they gained significant attention as cell source for tissue engineering (TE) approaches aimed at restoring bone and cartilage defects. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) are currently used as a safe and non-invasive treatment to enhance bone healing and to provide joint protection. PEMFs enhance both osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Here, we provide extensive review of the signaling pathways modulated by PEMFs during MSCs osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. Overall, the application of PEMFs in tissue repair is foreseen: (1) in vitro: to improve the functional and mechanical properties of the engineered construct; (2) in vivo: (i) to favor graft integration, (ii) to control the local inflammatory response, and (iii) to foster tissue repair from both implanted and resident MSCs cells [PMCID: PMC7830993].

bioelectromagnetic healing The health of cell membranes indicates the state of a person's health. Transmembrane Potential (TMP) is a measure of normal cellular metabolism. Disease states are indicated by low TMP. High voltage PEMFs increase TMP with an infusion of electrons that helps to restore the immune system, normal cellular function, and healing through electroporation.

Bioelectromagnetic Healing: A Rationale for its Use. logo

Membrane permeabilization of mammalian cells using bursts of high magnetic field pulses. PEMF is a contactless treatment for achieving reversible permeabilization of biological cells. Similar to electroporation, the PEMF permeabilization efficacy is influenced by pulse parameters in a dose-dependent manner. logo

A Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Protects against Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity by Modulating the Endocannabinoid System in HT22 Cells. logo

Pulsed Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Therapy: A Potential Novel Treatment of Plantar Fasciitis. Pulsed Radiofrequency Frequency Electromagnetic Field therapy worn on a nightly basis appears to offer a simple, drug-free, noninvasive therapy to reduce the pain associated with plantar fasciitis.

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) Therapy relieves chronic pain without pills or surgery. This therapy is coming of age. It has been featured on American television on the Dr. Oz show. The FDA has approved various devices and treatments. NASA has been researching its effects upon bone loss and muscular degeneration in astronauts on long space voyages and has taken out a patent for enhancing tissue repair in mammals. For a commentary on this information read Dr. Magda Havas' blog PEMF Therapy and Pain Relief. logoEffect of pulsed electromagnetic field treatment on programmed resolution of inflammation pathway markers in human cells in culture. PEMF therapy may promote chronic inflammation resolution by mediating gene expression changes important for inhibiting and resolving inflammation.

pubmed logoResearchers use magnetic fields to stimulate the brain and control pain. Heat pain threshold was significantly increased after the Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) stimulation.

Physiological and Molecular Genetic Effects of Time-Varying Electromagnetic Fields on Human Neuronal Cells. A landmark 2003 NASA study finds that nanosecond PEMFs stimulate the restoration of tissue after trauma. As is clearly demonstrated in the human body, the bioelectric, biochemical process of electrical nerve stimulation is a documented reality. The present investigation demonstrates that a similar phenomenon can be potentiated in a synthetic atmosphere, i.e., two-dimensionally or in rotating wall cell culture vessels. One may use this electrical potentiation for a number of purposes, including developing tissues for transplantation, repairing traumatized tissues, and moderating some neurodegenerative diseases and perhaps controlling the degeneration of tissue as might be effected in a bioelectric stasis field. The primary purpose of this website is to give those interested in PEMF's (pulsed electromagnetic fields) insights into the fundamental significance, the scientific background and the effects of the increasingly popular complementary medical application of PEMF's.

Radiation Sciences

See Medical Imaging.

Radiation Therapy/Radio Therapy

High-definition Multileaf Collimator Radiosurgery System: In January 2008, the Palo Alto Medical Foundation in Palo Alto, CA became the first health care organization in the world with a new high-definition multileaf collimator (HD 120 MLC), an ultra-fine device for radiosurgery that shapes each treatment beam to match the exact contour of a tumor or other target. This technology allows doctors to treat brain tumors and cancer in all parts of the body with unsurpassed accuracy – all with fewer side effects, greater patient comfort and improved outcomes.

Radiosurgery is a non-invasive medical procedure in which high-energy X-rays are delivered to a target area within the body from a machine outside the body. With the HD120 MLC, which is part of PAMF’s Novalis Tx® radiosurgery system from Varian Medical Systems and BrainLab, patients receive an ultra-precise dose of high-intensity radiation – accurate within fractions of a centimeter – while avoiding the pain and complications associated with conventional “open” surgery. Palo Alto Medical Foundation March 2008 e-HealthNews Volume 5 Issue 3. Also see Radiosurgery and Cancers Treated with Radiosurgery.

A more general term for radiosurgery is Radio Frequency Ablation (RFA). Results show it to be extremely effective and can be used with advanced lung cancer where conventional surgery is not possible. Radio frequency ablation is a medical procedure where part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor or other dysfunctional tissue is ablated using the heat generated from the high frequency alternating current. It essentially heats tumors and kills them. ( Radiofrequency ablation). logoRadiofrequency ablation for treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. The use of thermal energy-based systems to treat uterine fibroids has resulted in a plethora of devices that are less invasive and potentially as effective in reducing symptoms as traditional options such as myomectomy. Most thermal ablation devices involve hyperthermia (heating of tissue), which entails the conversion of an external electromagnetic or ultrasound waves into intracellular mechanical energy, generating heat. logoRadiofrequency ablation for treatment of renal tumors: technological principles and outcomes. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive, energy-based, needle-ablative treatment modality that is currently being used to treat small renal masses (SRMs) and offers advantages over extirpative techniques. RFA treats SRM with heat induced by the tissue impedance to radiofrequency current emitted from a needle probe within the SRM.

Another example of radiation therapy is the use of External Beam Radiation and Brachytherapy for Mesothelioma. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) also uses brachytherapy: Beating breast cancer - Targeted radiation shortens treatment, reduces side effects.

Radio telemetry enables monitoring of cardiovascular functions such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate. A more general term for this is biotelemetry. logoRadioelectric Asymmetric Conveyer REAC-CRM device applies radiofrequency fields to body parts. logoRadioelectric asymmetric stimulation of tissues as treatment for post-traumatic injury symptoms. For the past few years, treatment of contusions and associated symptoms, such as bruising, pain, and loss of function, has involved instrument-based therapies, ie, lasers, electromagnetic fields, and electrical stimulation. In this study, tissue optimization (TO) sessions were applied using a radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC) for the treatment of contusions and associated symptoms. REAC-TO is able to promote regeneration and repair processes in the human body.

Raman Spectroscopy

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Infrared micro-spectroscopy of human tissue: principles and future promises. This article summarizes the methods employed, and the progress achieved over the past two decades in applying vibrational (Raman and IR) micro-spectroscopy to problems of medical diagnostics and cellular biology. During this time, several research groups have verified the enormous information contained in vibrational spectra; in fact, information on protein, lipid and metabolic composition of cells and tissues can be deduced by decoding the observed vibrational spectra.

pubmed logoVibrational spectroscopy: a tool being developed for the noninvasive monitoring of wound healing. Vibrational spectroscopy, specifically Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, offers the capability to accurately detect and identify the various molecules that compose the extracellular matrix during wound healing in their native state. The identified changes might provide the objective markers of wound healing, which can then be integrated with clinical characteristics to guide the management of wounds.

pubmed logoApplication of Raman spectroscopy for visualizing biochemical changes during peripheral nerve injury in vitro and in vivo. Raman spectroscopy can be used for analysis of objects by detecting the vibrational spectrum using label-free methods. This imaging method was applied to analysis of peripheral nerve regeneration by examining the sciatic nerve in vitro and in vivo.

Neuroscientists Use Lightwaves to Improve Brain Tumor Surgery.

Rife Machine

EM healing device utilizing radio transmission. Also see Healing with Electromedicine and Sound Therapies - Part 1. Royal Rife was persecuted by the existing medical establishment and his work was distroyed (see Suppression of Energy Medicine). His cure for cancer was discovered in the 1930's. It is only now starting to show up in treatments. For more complete information see: The Cancer Cure That Worked: 50 Years of Suppression.

Sacral Nerve Stimuation (SNS)

Sacral nerve stimulation, also termed sacral neuromodulation, involves the implantation of a programmable stimulator subcutaneously which delivers low amplitude electrical stimulation via a lead to the sacral nerve to treat such complications as fecal incontinence.

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Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) or acupuncture for the treatment for fecal incontinence: a clinical commentary. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) has become an established therapy worldwide for the treatment for fecal incontinence. A large number of papers have been published over the years, and SNS is generally considered very effective with improved continence and quality of life for most patients.

Scanning Kelvin Probe

The Scanning Kelvin Probe is a state-of-the-art device that measures electrical potential without actually touching the skin.

SCIO Frequency Healing Technology

The SCIO measures and balances the body's electro-physiological activity.

Shockwave Therapy

Shockwave therapy is a relatively new treatment option in orthopedic and rehabilitation medicine. Shockwaves (high frequency sound waves) are used to treat many orthopedic conditions, including plantar fasciitis (heel spurs), patellar tendinitis (jumper’s knee), lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow), medial epicondylitis (golfer’s elbow) and shoulder tendinitis. Multiple studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of shockwave therapy. Many have shown a positive response versus placebo treatment and others have shown no benefit over placebo. No studies have reported any significant side effects when utilized for orthopedic conditions. However, there are some orthopedic conditions for which this technology is contraindicated. - The veterinary use of shock wave therapy. White papers.

Shock Wave Types and Differences. logo
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders

Shortwave Diathermy (SWD)

Elevation of tissue temperature via electromagnetic waves. logoEffectiveness of thermal and athermal short-wave diathermy for the management of knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. logoThe case for over-the-counter shortwave therapy: safe and effective devices for pain management. Pulsed shortwave diathermy, an electromagnetic therapy, has been in clinical use for acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain for many decades. Innovation, miniaturization and advances in technology have allowed for the development of a new generation of shortwave devices that deliver a localized, low fixed dose of shortwave therapy. Clinical research has shown that these novel shortwave devices can be used safely in order to reduce acute and chronic pain, as well as the need for pain medications. Their ease of use and safety profile make low-dose shortwave devices an attractive alternative, or adjunct therapy, to pharmacological-based pain therapies.

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

A medical imaging technique using gamma rays. A neuroimaging application of SPECT is the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during a task, for example: Neuroimaging during Trance State: A Contribution to the Study of Dissociation.


See Ultrasound.

Spinal Cord Stimulation logoNeuromuscular electrostimulation techniques: historical aspects and current possibilities in treatment of pain and muscle waisting.

Superconducting Quantum Interface Device (SQUID)

Diagnostic device that can detect minute magnetic fields. SQUIDS map biomagnetic fields produced by physiological processes in the body. One example is recording the magnetic field of the heart (magnetocardiography). Since thinking causes electrical signals in the brain which in turn produce magnetic fields, it's possible to detect thoughts, even at a distance, using SQUIDS. logoFetal magnetocardiography (fMCG): moving forward in the establishment of clinical reference data by advanced biomagnetic instrumentation and analysis. Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is a non-invasive technique measuring magnetic signals generated by fetal heart activity.

Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (SXRF)

A form of electromagnetic radiation used in physics and biomedical research.

Thermoacoustic Tomography (TAT)

see Microwave

Terahertz imaging

pubmed logoTerahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging: A Cutting-Edge Method for Diagnosing Digestive Cancers. The Terahertz's wavelength is located between the microwave and the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Because it is non-ionizing and non-invasive, Terahertz (THz)-based detection represents a very attractive tool for repeated assessments, patient monitoring, and follow-up. logoThe potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date. The terahertz region lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such that it is strongly attenuated by water and very sensitive to water content. Terahertz radiation has very low photon energy and thus it does not pose any ionization hazard for biological tissues. Because of these characteristic properties, there has been an increasing interest in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for biological applications within the last few years and more and more terahertz spectra are being reported, including spectroscopic studies of cancer. The presence of cancer often causes increased blood supply to affected tissues and a local increase in tissue water content may be observed: this acts as a natural contrast mechanism for terahertz imaging of cancer. Furthermore the structural changes that occur in affected tissues have also been shown to contribute to terahertz image contrast. This paper introduces terahertz technology and provides a short review of recent advances in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy techniques. In particular investigations relating to the potential of terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis will be highlighted.

Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation (tDCS)

Brain stimulation: The military’s mind-zapping project. Shocking the brain with mild electrical current was once a controversial treatment for the mentally ill. Now evidence is emerging that it could quicken learning and improve attention.

New Therapy for Depression. A type of brain stimulation caused by a mild electric current that appears to have minimal negative side effects is showing promise as a potential treatment for major depression, according to several studies. The experimental therapy, known as transcranial direct current stimulation, or tDCS, involves a low-level charge about one-400th of that used in electroshock treatment. Unlike electroshock (also called electroconvulsive therapy or ECT), which is administered for a few seconds to patients under anesthesia, tDCS is given for 20 to 30 minutes continuously while patients are conscious.

pubmed logoTranscranial direct current stimulation ameliorates tactile sensory deficit in multiple sclerosis.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as a Therapeutic Option for Neurologic and Psychiatric Illnesses. The aim of this review is to introduce the basics of this technology to the readers and to bring together an overview of some of its clinical applications investigated thus far.

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 Current evidence on transcranial magnetic stimulation and its potential usefulness in post-stroke neurorehabilitation: Opening new doors to the treatment of cerebrovascular disease.

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Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a treatment for psychiatric disorders: A comprehensive review. Stimulates the brain with magnetics fields. Deep TMS is being used to treat drug-resistant major depressive disorder and is being tested to treat a very wide range of neurological, psychiatric and medical conditions.

pubmed logoRepetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).

Transcranial photon migration spectroscopy

Chemical absorption of laser light shone through the skull.

Transcranial Ultrasound (see Ultrasound)

Transcutaneous Electrical Acupuncture Stimulation (TEAS)

See Acupuncture.

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

Used for treating nerve disorders such as knee osteoarthritis and managing pain. One criticism of TENS is that its effects are often temporary. See Healing with Electromedicine and Sound Therapies (especially the 'Frequency Specific Microcurrent' section) for a more in-depth discussion. Recent research suggests that TENS over acupoints on lung function and dyspnoea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease warrants further investigation. 

pubmed logoChinese researchers confirm effectiveness of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy. Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (t-VNS) uses the fact that a branch of the vagus nerve in the outer ear can be stimulated through the skin (transcutaneous) with electrical impulses. This stimulation passes along particular nerve fibers to reach the brainstem to consecutively activate higher centers of the brain associated with an anticonvulsive (anti-seizure) effect.

Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields)

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An Overview of Sub-Cellular Mechanisms Involved in the Action of TTFields. In this review, we provide an assessment of possible physical interactions between 100 kHz range alternating electric fields and biological cells in general and their nano-scale subcellular structures in particular. This is intended to mechanistically elucidate the observed strong disruptive effects in cancer cells.

Two Photon Microscopy

A fluorescence imaging technique for imaging of living tissue such as the glymphatic system.

Ultrasound, Infrasound

pubmed logoThe neurovascular response is attenuated by focused ultrasound-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a non-invasive method to target drug delivery to specific brain areas that is now entering into the clinic. Recent studies have shown that the method has several secondary effects on local physiology and brain function beyond making the vasculature permeable to normally non-BBB penetrant molecules. This study uses functional MRI methods to investigate how FUS BBB opening alters the neurovascular response.

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Ultrasound-mediated Drug Delivery to the Brain: Principles, Progress and ProspectsThe blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits drug delivery to the central nervous system. When combined with microbubbles, ultrasound can transiently permeate blood vessels in the brain. This approach, which can be referred to as sonoporation or sonopermeabilization, holds significant promise for shuttling large therapeutic molecules, such as antibodies, growth factors and nanomedicine formulations, across the BBB. We here describe the basic principles of BBB permeation using ultrasound and microbubbles, and we summarize several (pre-) clinical studies showing the potential of BBB opening for improving the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Use of sound waves for diagnosis and treatment. Ultrasonography is nearly as accurate as CT scans, but does not cause radiation damage. Ultrasonic lithotripsy is the use of high frequency sound waves delivered through an electronic probe break up kidney stones.

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Drug and gene delivery across the blood-brain barrier with focused ultrasoundThis article comprehensively reviews recent studies on the targeted delivery of therapeutics into the central nervous system with focused ultrasound and offers perspectives on the future of this technology.

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Low Dose Focused Ultrasound Induces Enhanced Tumor Accumulation of Natural Killer Cells. Significant accumulation of NK cells was observed up to 24 hrs at the tumor site when ensonified with 0.50 MPa peak acoustic pressure ldbFUS, whereas tumors treated with at 0.25 MPa showed no detectable NK cell accumulation. These clinically translatable results show that ldbFUS of the tumor mass can potentiate tumor homing of NK cells that can be evaluated non-invasively using MRI. Full text:

High-Intensity Sound Waves May Aid Regenerative Medicine. By liquefying cells with ultrasound, researchers lay bare cellular scaffolding that could serve as a template on which to grow new tissue.

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Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in the treatment of nonunions. Low-intensity ultrasound has demonstrated an acceleration of bone healing and more profound callus formation in animal and human clinical experiments. In this study, the effect of pulsed, low-intensity ultrasound was determined in established nonunion cases.

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Mechanical means to improve bone strength: ultrasound and vibration. One method that has been used to improve fracture healing is low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). LIPUS has been US Food and Drug Administration approved for several years, and some preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that fracture healing can be improved by this technique, which appears to be generally safe.

Star Trek Medical Device Uses Ultrasound To Seal Punctured Lungs. High intensity ultrasound successfully used to seal punctured lungs. Also see Shockwave Therapy.

‘Good Vibrations’! Brain Ultrasound Improves Mood. A group from the Departments of Anesthesiology and Radiology at the University of Arizona Medical Center in Tucson, Arizona has investigated Transcranial Ultrasound (TUS) for modulating mental states in a pilot study in human volunteers suffering from chronic pain.They found improvement in subjective mood 10 min and 40 min after TUS compared to placebo. TUS can have safe neurophysiological effects on brain function, and is a promising noninvasive therapy for modulating conscious and unconscious mental states and disorders. They suggest TUS acts via intra-neuronal microtubules, which apparently resonate in TUS megahertz range.

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The Role of Endobronchial Ultrasound in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Staging: A Comprehensive Review. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) technology is a relatively new bronchoscopic method of visualizing the tracheobronchial tree, the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, and the mediastinal structures, with a particular role in lung cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment.

Stopping Internal Bleeding Without Surgery. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) stops internal bleeding without surgery:

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High-tech acupuncture made in Austria--cerebral circulation. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography uses ultrasound waves to measure the specific effects on cerbral hemodynamics caused by acupuncture stimulation.

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Low-pressure pulsed focused ultrasound with microbubbles promotes an anticancer immunological response. High-intensity focused-ultrasound (HIFU) has been successfully employed for thermal ablation of tumors in clinical settings. Continuous- or pulsed-mode HIFU may also induce a host antitumor immune response, mainly through expansion of antigen-presenting cells in response to increased cellular debris and through increased macrophage activation/infiltration. Here we demonstrated that another form of focused ultrasound delivery, using low-pressure, pulsed-mode exposure in the presence of microbubbles (MBs), may also trigger an antitumor immunological response and inhibit tumor growth.

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Infrasound Sensitizes Human Glioblastoma Cells to Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis. Infrasound at the frequency of Qigong external healing has been shown to enhance the chemotherapeutic effects of a chemotherapy drug:

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Electromagnetic Acoustic Imaging (EMAI). Electromagnetic acoustic imaging is a new imaging technique that uses long-wavelength RF electromagnetic (EM) waves to induce ultrasound emission.

National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. The primary focus of this program is the improvement of technologies for diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic uses of ultrasound. The diagnostic ultrasound program includes, but is not limited to the design, development and construction of transducers, transducer arrays, and transducer materials, innovative image acquisition and display methods, innovative signal processing methods and devices, and optoacoustic and thermoacoustic technology. It also includes the development of image-enhancement devices and methods, such as contrast agents, image and data presentation and mapping methods, such as functional imaging and image fusion.

The interventional ultrasound program includes the use of ultrasound for therapeutic use, or as an adjunct for enhancement of non-ultrasound therapy applications. Examples include, but are not limited to, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as a non-invasive or minimally invasive interventional surgical or therapy tool, and as an adjunct interventional tool. It also includes the use of ultrasound contrast agents for therapy and for targeted drug delivery, and the use of ultrasound for image-guided surgery, biopsy, and other interventions.


A laser may be used to break up a kidney stone.

Vibrational spectroscopy

Using light to monitor low-level functioning of a system. Also see Raman Spectroscopy and NIRS.

Vibrational Two-Photon Microscopy for Tissue Imaging: Short-Wave Infrared Surface-Enhanced Resonance Hyper-Raman Scattering. Multiphoton microscopies using short-wave infrared (SWIR) radiation offer nondestructive and high resolution imaging through tissue [PMID: 34609064].

pubmed logoIntra-operative optical diagnostics with vibrational spectroscopy. Currently, vibrational spectroscopy techniques (both Raman and infrared) complement the standard methods for tissue diagnostics. Vibrational spectroscopy has the potential for intra-operative use, because it can provide a biochemically based profile of tissue in real time and without requiring additional contrast agents, which may perturb the tissue under investigation. In addition, no electric potential needs to be applied, and the measurements are not affected by electromagnetic fields.

Vega Test

A highly effective electronic procedure to detect all allergy conditions by monitoring skin impedance at acupuncture points.

Visual Evoked Potential (VEP)

An eye functionality test which monitors brain responses to visual stimulai. Also see the more general term Electrophysiology.

Voltage clamp

The voltage clamp is used by electrophysiologists to measure the ion currents across the membrane of excitable cells, such as neurons, while holding the membrane voltage at a set level.


“Nanosized Voltmeter” Enables Cellular-Wide Electric Field Mapping. Previously, all biological measurements of intracellular electric fields (E fields), using voltage dyes or patch/voltage clamps, were confined to cellular membranes, which account for <0.1% of the total cellular volume. These membrane-dependent techniques also frequently require lengthy calibration steps for each cell or cell type measured. A new 30-nm "photonic voltmeter", 1000-fold smaller than existing voltmeters, enables, to our knowledge, the first complete three-dimensional E field profiling throughout the entire volume of living cells. These nanodevices are calibrated externally and then applied for E field determinations inside any live cell or cellular compartment, with no further calibration steps. The results indicate that the E fields from the mitochondrial membranes penetrate much deeper into the cytosol than previously estimated, indicating that, electrically, the cytoplasm cannot be described as a simple homogeneous solution, as often approximated, but should rather be thought of as a complex, heterogeneous hydrogel, with distinct microdomains [PMCID: PMC1929021].

National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering

NIH Institute Biomed Imaging and Engineering

The mission of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) is to improve health by leading the development and accelerating the application of biomedical technologies. The Institute is committed to integrating the physical and engineering sciences with the life sciences to advance basic research and medical care. This is achieved through: research and development of new biomedical imaging and bioengineering techniques and devices to fundamentally improve the detection, treatment, and prevention of disease; enhancing existing imaging and bioengineering modalities; supporting related research in the physical and mathematical sciences; encouraging research and development in multidisciplinary areas; supporting studies to assess the effectiveness and outcomes of new biologics, materials, processes, devices, and procedures; developing technologies for early disease detection and assessment of health status; and developing advanced imaging and engineering techniques for conducting biomedical research at multiple scales.

Magnetic, Biomagnetic and Bioelectric Devices. This program supports technological development of magnetic, biomagnetic and bioelectric devices, e.g., EEG, MEG, etc. Examples include (but are not restricted to) novel detectors, increased sensitivity and spatial resolution, improved reconstruction algorithms, multiplexing with other imaging techniques, etc.

Imaging Technique Helps Improve Outcome for Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. Clinicians routinely monitor electrical signals from the brains of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients to assess the response to treatments such as anti-seizure drugs. However, determining the specific location of injuries, where abnormal electrical activity is generated, has remained elusive. Researchers combined several imaging technologies to track abnormal electrical signals to the specific injury site. Known as inverse localization, the technique promises to enhance patient-specific monitoring and treatment, optimize surgical effectiveness, and improve clinical outcomes for those suffering from traumatic brain injury.

Professional Societies Researching Energy-Based Medical Technologies and Therapies

The EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) and the International Society for Brain Electromagnetic Topography (ISBET) focus on all types of electrical and magnetic brain activity. The International Society for Neuro-Imaging in Psychiatry (ISNIP) specializes in structural and functional brain imaging, such as fMRI. The Evoked Potentials International Conference concentrates on brain function studies based on evoked responses.

EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS). The primary goal of ECNS is to further the clinical practice of classic electroencephalography (EEG), quantitative EEG (QEEG), evoked potentials, magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), polysomnography (sleep EEG), and EEG Neurofeedback from the professional, scientific, and economic standpoints. The ECNS is an international scientific and educational organization dedicated to disseminating knowledge regarding the latest scientific advances in the above mentioned fields of electrophysiology as they relate to the understanding, treatment, and prevention of Neurobehavioral disorders including, but not limited to, head injury, epilepsy, pain syndromes, movement disorders, cerebrovascular disorders, metabolic and degenerative disorders, thought disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality and substance dependence disorders.

International Society for Neuroimaging in Psychiatry (ISNIP). ISNIP is an international non-profit scientific and educational organization dedicated to disseminating knowledge regarding the latest scientific advances in the field of Neuroimaging in Psychiatry and related fields and promote the understanding, treatment, and prevention of neuropsychiatric diseases.