Meditation is one of the four fundamental components of Qigong along with movement/posture, self-massage, and breathing. Qigong (and it's most popular moving form, Tai Chi) is an ancient practice in a new category of exercise called "moving meditation". Meditation in combination with breathing and slow, gentle movements (although there are many forms of Qigong that do not involve movement) affects humans physically and psychologically through relaxation techniques which reduce stress through modulation of the autonomic nervous system. The practice has a proven effect upon quality of life, self-esteem, relationships, the ability to recognize and handle stress, pain relief, blood pressure, cardiovascular health, and more.
Qigong is moving meditation. "Moving" means either physical movement or movement of energy internally, even if no musculo-skeletal movement is occurring. The integration of interoception, proprioception, and mindfulness is a key component of the practice. You learn to create moments of peace within activity. All of this comes on a foundation of breathing.
Meditation is increasingly being used in clinical situations for a range of conditions, and there is a growing scientific evidence base of its benefits. Qigong meditation and mindfulness training cultivates body awareness and promotes self-management of illness.
Movement-based embodied contemplative practices: definitions and paradigms. The experience of one's self in the world as a cognizant being does not solely emerge from neural activity within the brain. Instead, it involves a complex interplay of brain, body and environment, and the seamless integration of interoceptive, proprioceptive (including vestibular), kinesthetic, tactile, and spatial information. Pubmed 24782738.
Why Doing Nothing Is the Key to Happiness. Attention and focus are hard to come by. Starbucks built a $13 billion business because we need help paying attention. Psychiatrists increasingly diagnose "adult attention deficit disorder" and prescribe Ritalin for grownups who can't focus or pay attention. But are coffee and prescription speed the answers to our modern distractions? What matters most in life is the quality of our experience, the ability to be awake to what is real and true in our lives, for the difficult and the happy times, to be awake to each person we touch, to our own experience, to this very moment, to the simple sweet and alive gifts of a smile, a kind deed, the breeze on our skin, the firefly flickering the early summer night. The point of meditation, of doing nothing, is not an end in itself but a way to calm the mind, to see the true nature of things, and reduce the impact of suffering -- while increasing love, kindness, wisdom, fearlessness and sympathy. From that stillness, your life becomes more rich, your actions more clear, your words more direct and powerful and your capacity to be fully engaged in life enhanced. It is not a retreat from life, but a way to go fully into it and cultivate your own power and happiness. The article could be titled: 'Why Doing Qigong Is the Key to Happiness".
Meditation helps patients with medically unexplained symptoms. Awareness and acceptance of painful symptoms and emotions are key factors in the process of change in patients with persistent medically unexplained symptoms. Change of unhelpful behavioral patterns and increased self-care and self-compassion can also result from this process.
Study Revealed That Vajrayana Meditation Techniques Associated with Tibetan Buddhism Can Enhance Brain Performance. Contrary to popular belief, not all meditation techniques produce similar effects of body and mind. Indeed, a recent study by researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has demonstrated for the first time that different types of Buddhist meditation – namely the Vajrayana and Theravada styles of meditation - elicit qualitatively different influences on human physiology and behaviour, producing arousal and relaxation responses respectively.
Is Mindful Reflective Practice the way forward to reduce medication errors? Considering the benefits of mindfulness, the authors suggest that healthcare professionals should be encouraged to develop their practice of mindfulness. This would not only be beneficial in relieving stress, increasing attention levels and awareness, but it is believed that the integration of mindfulness and reflective practice in a 'Mindful Reflective Practice' could minimise some of the individual factors that lead to medication errors.
Breathing In vs. Spacing Out. Are mindfulness and creativity mutually exclusive? Implicit learning underlies all sorts of acquired skills and habits, but it occurs without conscious awareness. The trick is knowing when mindfulness is called for and when it's not. We know that being mindful is really good for a lot of explicitly cognitive functions. But it might not be so useful when you want to form new habits.
Spiritual Qigong is involved with integrating a form of meditation such as mindfulness into your life 24x7. Through meditation the relationship between you and your life changes and deepens. You gain new insight and perceptions on living your life. However, mediation is not something to be practiced in ascetic isolation from the rest of your daily routine. In fact it is the integration of mindful practices such as Qigong into the fabric of daily life that most directly result in significant changes and improvements in health and wellbeing.
7 Myths of Meditation. Deepak Chopra debunks some of the more common myths surrounding the practice of meditation.
American Mindfulness Research Association. Mindfulness is a quality of human consciousness characterized by an accepting awareness of and enhanced attention to the constant stream of lived experience. Being mindful increases engagement with the present moment and allows for a clearer understanding of how thoughts and emotions can impact our health and quality of life. Mindfulness can be cultivated through meditation practice. The AMRA Mindfulness Research Guide is a comprehensive electronic resource and publication database that provides information to researchers, practitioners, and the general public on mindfulness.
Buddhism and the Blues - Buddhist psychology's core techniques of meditation and awareness may have much to offer ordinary Westerners. To most people Buddhism is an ancient Eastern religion, although a very special one. It has no god, it has no central creed or dogma and its primary goal is the expansion of consciousness, or awareness. But to the Dalai Lama, it's a highly refined tradition, perfected over the course of 2,500 years, of analyzing and investigating the inner world of the mind in order to transform mental states and promote happiness. "Whether you are a believer or not in the faith," the Dalai Lama told a conference of Buddhists and scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, you can use its time-honored techniques to voluntarily control your emotional state.
Silencing the Monkey Mind: For those of us engaged in any form of meditative efforts, such as bio energy, traditional chi gung, or even Zen meditations, each of us can personally attest to the brain’s “wandering” tendencies. Long ago, Buddhist monks created an analogy describing the wandering activity of the brain akin to a “chattering monkey”.
Meditation Makes You More Creative. Open Monitoring versus Focused Attention meditation.
Meditation and Health: An Annotated Bibliography. A short overview of meditation.
RECENT FINDINGS: Recent meta-analyses and individual studies demonstrated common brain effects for attention-based meditative practices and active-based meditations in areas involved in reward processing and learning, attention and memory, awareness and sensory integration, and self-referential processing and emotional control, while deactivation was seen in the amygdala, an area implicated in emotion processing. Unique effects for mindfulness practices were found in brain regions involved in body awareness, attention, and the integration of emotion and sensory processing. Effects specific to active-based meditations appeared in brain areas involved in self-control, social cognition, language, speech, tactile stimulation, sensorimotor integration, and motor function.
This review suggests that mind-body practices can target different brain systems that are involved in the regulation of attention, emotional control, mood, and executive cognition that can be used to treat or prevent mood and cognitive disorders of aging, such as depression and caregiver stress, or serve as "brain fitness" exercise. Benefits may include improving brain functional connectivity in brain systems that generally degenerate with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other aging-related diseases.
Meditation can be defined to include any of a family of practices in which the practitioner trains an individual to consciously calm his/her mind in order to realize some benefit or achieve inner peace or harmony. Despite lack of consensus in the scientific literature on a definition of meditation, most researchers agree that meditation implies a form of mental training that requires either stilling or emptying the mind, and its goal is to achieve a state of “detached observation” or “restful alertness.”[ 7 ] The foundation of meditation practice is rooted in the principles of “self-observation of immediate psychic activity, training one’s level of awareness, and cultivating an attitude of acceptance of process rather than content.”[ 6 ]
From the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), all forms of meditation that are essentially mind-body integrative exercises are categorized as “qigong”. Qigong is defined as “the skill of mind–body exercises that integrate body, breath, and mind adjustments into one,”[ 8 ] which addresses both psychological and physiological aspects of health. Although qigong has both dynamic (movement) and static forms, the meditative state—body, breath, and mind into one—is common among all of them. Given a lack of consensus in Western psychology about the definition of meditation and exactly what techniques it includes, in this review we use the established definition of meditative therapies in Chinese medicine. Specifically, we include all mind–body exercises, both dynamic (moving) form and static (still) form, which aim to integrate breath–body–mind adjustments into one. As a result, this includes all meditations, yoga, mindfulness training, Transcendental Meditation (TM), qigong, tai chi (or Taiji), and even guided imagery, as guided imagery is an ancient technique in meditation practice.[ 8] More...
Chen, et. al., MEDITATIVE THERAPIES FOR REDUCING ANXIETY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS. DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY 29:545–562 (2012)Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Meditation: A simple, fast way to reduce stress. Meditation can wipe away the day's stress, bringing with it inner peace. See how you can easily learn to practice meditation whenever you need it most.
Spinal FMRI of interoceptive attention/awareness in experts and novices. Interoception is the sense of the physiological condition of the body derived from sensitivity to stimuli arising from within the body and external to it. In other words, interoceptive attention/awareness (IAA) depends upon the evaluation of sensory input. Interoception is fundamental to Qigong practice. These research results showed that neural activity in the spine increased in experts when they practiced IAA and that this increase was significantly larger for experts versus novices in each of the sessions. The significant effects of IAA and expertise on spinal neural activity are consistent with and elaborate on previous reports showing similar effects on cerebral neural activity. As the spinal cord directly innervates body parts, IAA has an instantaneous and beneficial effect on the physical body after extended training. This research confirms how some main benefits of Qigong practice are derived, especially due to the fact that the IAA in this research was combined with constant deep breathing.
Dissociation between the cognitive and interoceptive components of mindfulness in the treatment of chronic worry. The combination of mindfulness and interoception through the practice of qigong are very powerful.
"The art of meditation is a way of getting into touch with reality. And the reason for it is that most civilized people are out of touch with reality because they confuse the world as it is with the world as they think about it, and talk about it, and describe it. For on the one hand there is the real world and on the other a whole system of symbols about that world which we have in our minds...the principle disadvantage of symbols is that we confuse them with reality. Just as we confuse money with actual wealth." Alan Watts.
What are the benefits of mindfulness. A wealth of new research has explored this age-old practice. Here's a look at its benefits for both clients and psychologists.
Herbert Benson and Jon Kabat-Zinn are the two people have been most instrumental in the introduction and acceptance of meditation into basic western medical practice. Dr. Herbert Benson was the first to research and publicize the benefits of meditation in his ground-breaking book The Relaxation Response published in 1975. Benson's message was simple and straightforward. He argued that meditation could counter physiological and psychological adjustments to change which cause stress and accompanying illness. Benson recommended a meditation practice consisting of four basic elements -- a quiet environment, a mental object to dwell on, emptying all thoughts and distractions from one's mind, and a comfortable position. He called the result of such a practice the "relaxation response" -- decreases in heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and breathing rate.
From Buddhist meditation practices, Jon Kabat-Zinn developed a secualr form of meditation he called "mindfulness-based" and very successfully marketed it to get it accepted and integrated into mainstream western medical practice.
Q&A: Jon Kabat-Zinn Talks About Bringing Mindfulness Meditation to Medicine. Jon Kabat-Zinn, an MIT-trained molecular biologist, began meditating in 1966, when the practice was primarily the province of hippies and gurus, not scientists. Now, thanks in large part to his efforts, it has become mainstream medicine. Dozens of studies have since shown the benefits of what he termed Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) in treating cardiovascular disease, depression, addictions, chronic pain and many other conditions.
Full Catastrophe Living (Revised Edition): Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness. Healing is a process of undergoing a profound transformation of view. This transformation is brought about by the encounter with one's own wholeness, catalyzed by the meditation practice. Healing always involves an attitudinal and emotional transformation. This is a texbook of the benefits and practice of meditation. It is perhaps the most widely used text for clinical applications of meditation.
Clinical integration of Mindfulness-based interventions. This is an excellent review of mindfulness research published during the last five years. Over 500 scientific articles on mindfulness were published in 2012. This was more than the total number of mindfulness articles published between 1980 and 2000. A recent survey by the Mental Health Foundation found that 75% of general practitioners in the UK believe that mindfulness is beneficial for patients with mental health problems. Indeed, recent findings indicate that Mindfulness-based interventions may be effective treatments for a broad range of psychological disorders and somatic illnesses.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and zen meditation for depression, anxiety, pain, and psychological distress. The goal of this review is to provide a synopsis that practicing clinicians can use as a clinical reference concerning Zen meditation, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). All three approaches originated from Buddhist spiritual practices, but only Zen is an actual Buddhist tradition. MBSR and MBCT are secular, clinically based methods that employ manuals and standardized techniques. Studies indicate that MBSR and MBCT have broad-spectrum antidepressant and antianxiety effects and decrease general psychological distress.
Systematic review finds evidence supports the use of MBSR and MBCT to alleviate symptoms, both mental and physical, in the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, depression, anxiety disorders and in prevention in healthy adults and children. Most of the authors are from Harvard Medical School and they include Herbert Benson.
Feeling Stressed? An Rx for Meditation. Ronesh Sinha, an M.D. at the Palo Alto Medical Foundation, shares why anyone who feels stressed can benefit from meditation and how to get started.
Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) article by Johns Hopkins researchers recommends meditation. Clinicians should be prepared to talk with their patients about the role that a meditation program could have in addressing psychological stress.
How Slow Breathing Makes You Relaxed (The Mercury News). Stanford researchers connect breathing to state of mind. One more layer of the onion peeled in explaining how Qigong works. Abstract: Breathing control center neurons that promote arousal in mice.
A brief report on the benefits of meditation, now being used in corporations, the military, schools, and increasingly by patients on the recommendation of their doctors.
Stress is a physical and emotional reaction that people experience as they encounter changes in life. Occasional stress is a normal coping mechanism. However, long-term stress may contribute to or worsen a range of health problems including digestive disorders, headaches, sleep disorders, and other symptoms. Stress may worsen asthma and has been linked to depression, anxiety, and other mental illnesses.
Some people use various relaxation techniques to induce the relaxation response, which helps release tension and may counteract the ill effects of stress. Relaxation techniques often combine breathing exercises and focused attention to calm the mind and the body. Some examples of relaxation response techniques are:
Meditation for Health: NCCAM Clinical Digest for Health Professionals. November 2014. This issue of the digest summarizes current scientific evidence about meditation for health conditions, including cancer symptoms and treatment side effects, high blood pressure, menopausal symptoms, anxiety disorders, smoking cessation, and ADHD. NCCAM Clinical Digest is a service of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NIH, DHHS. NCCAM Clinical Digest, a monthly e-newsletter, offers evidence-based information on complementary health approaches, including scientific literature searches, summaries of NCCAM-funded research, fact sheets for patients, and more. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine is dedicated to exploring complementary health products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information to the public and professionals.
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) research blog Highlights New Research on Meditation. NCCAM is planning a series of blog posts to highlight some exciting work from its research portfolio. Currently one intriguing area is the effect of meditation on the brain. Meditation can be viewed as a kind of ‘mental exercise.’ New insights are coming from incorporation of brain-imaging studies into meditation research. In particular, studies suggest that meditation is accompanied by changes in activation of select regions in the brain, particularly the amygdala, a region associated with processing of emotion. A new NCCIH study goes further and concludes that the changes in brain function in the amygdala seen during meditation are persistent, enduring even outside meditation sessions. Research spotlight: Meditation Training Program Shows Brain Effects Even Outside a Meditative State.
In 2013, the New York Times declared that mindfulness was "having a moment" (pun intended), and just a few months later, a January 2014 TIME cover story announced that a "Mindful Revolution" was underway, challenging the stressed-out, tech-addicted American status quo. This month, Scientific American has featured meditation on its November 2014 cover, representing another major step toward a meeting of the minds between ancient Eastern wisdom and Western science.
"We will examine here what happens in the brain during three common types of meditation developed through Buddhism and now practiced in secular programs in hospitals and schools throughout the world. The first one, focused-attention meditation, aims to tame and center the mind in the present moment while developing the capacity to remain vigilant to distractions. The second one, mindfulness, or open-monitoring meditation, tries to cultivate a less emotionally reactive awareness to emotions, thoughts and sensations occurring in the present moment to prevent them from spiraling out of control and creating mental distress. In mindfulness, the meditator remains attentive, moment by moment, to any experience without focusing on anything specific. Finally, another type of practice is known in Buddhist tradition as compassion and loving kindness and fosters an altruistic perspective toward others."
The three main principles of Qigong practice are the concentration of body movements, the breath and the mind. Qigong has both a dynamic (Yang) and stillness (Yin) component. Qigong can be referred to as a mindful or meditation practice. The term meditation refers to a variety of techniques or practices intended to focus or control attention. Most meditative techniques are rooted in Eastern religious or spiritual traditions and have been used by many different cultures throughout the world for thousands of years. Today, many people use meditation outside of its traditional religious or cultural settings to improve their health and wellness.
Researchers have been collecting data on meditation for many years and countless studies have shown that meditation has not only a mental but a physiological effect on the body. Many of the findings show that, among other benefits, meditation can help reverse heart disease, reduce pain and enhance the body's immune system. ...More
From: The Art of Life, Simon Blow.www.simonblowqigong.com. Reprinted with permisson of author.
The UCSD Center for Mindfulness is a multi-faceted program of clinical care, professional training, education, research and outreach intended to further the practice and integration of mindfulness into all aspects of society. The Center offers a broad range of mindfulness-based programs and initiatives. The Center is a program of the UC San Diego Center for Integrative Medicine and Department of Psychiatry.
UC San Diego Center for Mindfulness Director Steve Hickman explains how the practice of mindfulness can alleviate the difficulties of life. He describes how stress can be alleviated with the systematic practice of living in the moment.
Living in the moment -- also called mindfulness -- is a state of active, open, intentional attention on the present. When you become mindful, you realize that you are not your thoughts; you become an observer of your thoughts from moment to moment without judging them. Mindfulness involves being with your thoughts as they are, neither grasping at them nor pushing them away. Instead of letting your life go by without living it, you awaken to experience.
Institute of Integral Qigong and Tai Chi
Mindfulness is both a type of meditation and a key component of Qigong. Mindfulness can be defined as presence, or moment to moment awareness. Paying attention to the present moment as life unfolds moment to moment is called non-doing, or being. The practice of being is an attitude (i.e. an intention) to be in the present moment on purpose. The attitude that is brought to the meditation will determine its long-term value and whether it leads to a changed state of mind.
Meditation in general and mindfulness in particular are extremely valuable practices for health. However, they are necessary but not sufficient. The profound power of Qigong comes from the incorporation of breathing (not all meditation or mindfulness includes any particular breathing discipline) and movement.
Committment to practice requires effort and consistency in order to achieve best results. With practice, Qigong mindfulness becomes a state of mind that enables a profound state of being. Note that Qigong meditation is a part of any Qigong practice session, but the most enduring benefit of the practice is obtained by integrating Qigong (and its meditation component) into your daily life.
The essence of mindfulness practice is making the following seven key attitudes and intentions the foundation for your mind's moment to moment experience of life. These are fundamental to Qigong as well as any mindfulness-based meditation.
1. Non-judging: seeing experience as it is without adding interpretation or judgement.
2. Patience: understanding that change and understanding develops in its own time
3. Beginners mind: being curious about the current situation, as if you have never experienced anything like it before, rather than viewing it through a fog of preconceptions.
4. Trust: developing faith in the validity of your own body sensations, thoughts, emotions and intuition
5. Non-striving: allowing experience to be the way it is without trying to change it.
6. Acceptance: being open and willing to see things as they actually are in the present moment
7. Letting go: developing a sense of non-attachment to experience, letting thoughts and emotions arise and pass by without getting entangled in them.
Mindfulness: Getting Its Share of Attention. “This isn’t the old San Francisco hippie fluff,” said Mr. Tan, who started the Search Inside Yourself Leadership Institute as an extracurricular program in 2007. More than a thousand Googlers have gone through the course, which uses scientific research and the profit motive to entice coders and programmers to be here now. Hundreds of peer-reviewed studies verify the benefits of mindfulness training, and Mr. Tan appeared familiar with all of them. Meditation thickens the brain’s cortex, it lowers blood pressure, it can heal psoriasis and “it can help you get a promotion,” he said.
A Personal Reflection on the Relationship Between Tai Chi Qigong and Mindfulness Meditation. The main differences are that with Qigong, relaxation is a focus and not a by-product; deep diaphragmatic breathing is practiced; and there is a focus upon balancing qi, or life energy.
Mindfulness Meditation: How It Works In The Brain. Mindfulness may be so successful in helping with a range of conditions, from depression to pain, by working as a sort of "volume knob" for sensations, according to a new review of studies from Brown University researchers. In their paper, published in the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, the researchers proposed that mindfulness meditation works by enabling a person to have better control over brain processing of pain and emotions. Specifically, the researchers postulate that mindfulness meditation plays a role in the controlling of cortical alpha rhythms, which have been shown in brain imaging studies to play a role in what senses our bodies and minds pay attention to.
Sakyong Mipham explains some basics of meditation. Qigong meditation is practiced many ways, including sitting as in his example, or more commonly, while moving. Many people have a problem with sitting still very long, and that is why they try Qigong's moving meditation forms, such as Tai Chi. Also, Qigong meditation focuses most on mindfulness as opposed to meditation on specific notions such as compassion.
A Personal Reflection on the Relationship Between Tai Chi Qigong and Mindfulness Meditation. There are some subtle differences between Qiqong, Tai Chi, and Mindfulness-based meditation. However, they all seek the truth of the present moment, seeing it clearly without pre-conceived ideas and habitual judgements, you can promote the healing of both physical and mental aspects of the self. This in turn supports the sustained practice required to achieve spiritual insight and personal transformation.
Many of us go through our daily lives on autopilot, not fully aware of our conscious experiences. In a discussion moderated by Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, neuroscientists Richard Davidson and Amishi Jha and clinical mindfulness expert Jon Kabat-Zinn explore the role of consciousness in mental and physical health, how we can train our minds to be more flexible and adaptable, and cutting-edge neuroscience findings about the transformation of consciousness through mindfulness and contemplative practice. Intelligent, passionate people talking about neuroplasticity and meditation.
Is Mindfulness a Religion? The fact that so many of our traditions -- religious and secular, spiritual and philosophical -- come back to these fundamental practices of compassion and awareness suggests that mindfulness is simply part of the human experience.
More Mindfulness, Less Meditation. Don't expect more than meditation can deliver. In the modern world, meditation is far more effective as a technique of self-management than as a means of personal transformation, much less enlightenment. There is a difference between mindfulness meditation and simple mindfulness. The latter isn’t a practice separate from everyday life. Mindfulness just means becoming more conscious of what you’re feeling, more intentional about your behaviors and more attentive to your impact on others. The real challenge isn’t what we’re able to do with our eyes closed. It’s to be more self-aware in the crucible of our everyday lives, and to behave better as a result. That’s mindfulness in action.
Recognizing that the subconscious mind has the most control over what we do (i.e. our behavior) is a prime focus of mindfulness.
Information and Meditation -- Improving attention in the digital-age. In the University of Washington Information and Contemplation class, participants scrutinize their use of technology: how much time they spend with it, how it affects their emotions, how it fragments their attention. They watch videos of themselves multitasking and write guidelines for improving their habits. They also practice meditation—during class—to sharpen their attention. Video 3:20.
Monk changes body temperature thorough Meditation. Attempts to understand advanced mediation will lead to better treatments for stress-related illnesses. "My hope," says Dr. Herbert Benson, "is that self-care will stand equal with medical drugs, surgery, and other therapies that are now used to alleviate mental and physical suffering. Along with nutrition and exercise, mind/body approaches can be part of self-care practices that could save millions of dollars annually in medical costs."
From OM to OMG: Science, your brain, and the productive powers of meditation. This is a nice overview and introduction to medtiation that summarizes some of its key benefits and the medical research that proves it.
Mindfulness Research Guide. Mindfulness is a quality of human consciousness characterized by an accepting awareness of and enhanced attention to the constant stream of lived experience. Being mindful increases engagement with the present moment and allows for a clearer understanding of how thoughts and emotions can impact our health and quality of life. Mindfulness can be cultivated through meditation practice. Mindfulness Research Guide is a comprehensive electronic resource and publication database that provides information to researchers, practitioners, and the general public on mindfulness.