Author: Cahalin LP, Arena R, Guazzi M, Myers J, Cipriano G, Chiappa G, Lavie CJ, Forman DE.
Department of Physical Therapy, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, 5915 Ponce de Leon Blvd. 5th Floor, Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146-2435, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Conference/Journal: Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther.
Date published: 2013 Feb
Other: Volume ID: 11 , Issue ID: 2 , Pages: 161-77 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1586/erc.12.191 , Word Count: 190
Evidence to date strongly suggests that poor inspiratory muscle performance is associated with dyspnea, poor exercise tolerance and poor functional status in patients with heart failure (HF). A growing body of literature has examined the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in HF patients with the majority of studies reporting favorable effects on several of the above limitations and a substantial number of related deficiencies due to inadequate inspiration and inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. The domains and manifestations of HF, which were significantly improved by IMT in one or more of the 18 out of 19 studies of IMT, included dyspnea, quality of life, balance, peripheral muscle strength and blood flow, peripheral muscle sympathetic nervous activity, heart rate, respiratory rate, peak VO₂, 6-min walk test distance, ventilation, VE/VCO₂ slope, oxygen uptake efficiency, circulatory power, recovery oxygen kinetics and several indices of cardiac performance. This paper will also review the available IMT literature with a focus on methods of IMT and clinical outcomes. Key differences between available IMT methods will be highlighted with a goal to improve IMT efforts and decrease the pathophysiological manifestations of heart disease and HF.