Author: Bosković K, Gava BP, Grajić M, Madić D, Obradović B, Todorović ST.
Klinicki centar Vojvodine, Klinika za medicinsku rehabilitaciju, Medicinski fakultet, Novi Sad.
Conference/Journal: Med Pregl.
Date published: 2013 May-Jun
Other: Volume ID: 66 , Issue ID: 5-6 , Pages: 221-4 , Special Notes: [Article in Serbian] , Word Count: 393
Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by the progressive loss of bone tissue, is one of the most common complications of aging.
According to some calculations, there were 25% of women and 4% of men older than 50 years with osteoporosis in the world in 2010. It is assumed that the number of patients with osteoporosis will increase by 30% in every 10 years in the 21st century. There are many reasons for that: the world's population is growing older, diet is getting poorer in vitamins and minerals and physical activity is decreasing. THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF BONE TISSUE: Developing bones are much more responsive to mechanical loading and physical activity than mature bones. This suggests that training in early childhood may be an important factor in the prevention of osteoporosis in later life. It is important to note that the quality of bone achieved by training at younger age cannot be maintained permanently if it is not supported by physical activity later in life. Adapted physical activity represents physical activity individually tailored according to the psychosomatic capabilities of a person and the goal to be achieved. It can be applied at any age in order to maintain strong bones and reduce the risk of fracture. Adapted physical activity is different for men and women, for different age, as well as for the individuals. Aerobic exercises, which lead to an acceleration of breathing, increased heart rate and mild perspiration, as well as resistance exercises and exercises against resistance done by stretching elastic bands, for hands, legs and torso have been proven to increase bone density and improve bone strength. Coordination and balance exercises are important in an individual workout program. An explanation of the action of adapted physical activity is the basis for the theory of control and modulation of bone loss, muscle strength, coordination and balance. Physical activity is very effective in reducing sclerostin, which is known to inhibit bone formation. In addition, physical training enhances the levels of insulinlike growth factor, which has a very positive effect on bone formation.
The aim of adapted physical activity is to improve bone formation in youngsters, to preserve the bone mass in adults and to prevent the bone loss in the elderly thus reducing the risk of falls and resulting fractures; in other words, to minimize the disability caused by fractures and improve the quality of life.