Bioelectric impedance vector distribution in peritoneal dialysis patients with different hydration status

Author: Piccoli A
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Nephrology Clinic, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
Conference/Journal: Kidney Int
Date published: 2004
Other: Volume ID: 65 , Issue ID: 3 , Pages: 1050-63 , Word Count: 304

BACKGROUND: In continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), total body water (TBW) is estimated by functions of body weight, and by equations of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). These procedures may be biased with abnormal tissue hydration. We validated vector BIA (BIVA) patterns of hydration in CAPD patients, based on direct measurements of resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) (RXc graph) without knowledge of the body weight. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 200 adult CAPD patients from two groups: 149 patients (77 males and 72 females) without edema (BMI 24.3 kg/m2), and 51 (29 males and 22 females) with pitting edema (BMI 24.6 kg/m2). Single frequency (50 kHz), whole-body impedance vector was measured with both empty and filled peritoneal cavity. Vector distribution was compared with that from 726 healthy subjects, 1116 hemodialysis patients, and 50 nephrotic patients, all with a same BMI. The performance of BIVA was compared with indications of four anthropometry and four conventional BIA equations for TBW. RESULTS: TBW estimates from anthropometry (Watson, Hume and Weyers, Chertow, and Johansson formulas) were misleading, indicating the same hydration in edema. TBW estimates from BIA equations indicated a 10% excess TBW in edema. BIVA were very sensitive to fluid overload, as both R (by 10%) and Xc (by 40%) were reduced in patients with edema (regardless of peritoneal filling). The vector distribution of individual CAPD patients without edema was superposable to that of the healthy, gender-specific, reference population (50%, 75%, and 95% tolerance ellipses, RXc graph) and close to the hemodialysis, presession distribution. Vectors from patients with edema were displaced downward on the RXc graph, out of the 75% ellipse (88% sensitivity and 87% specificity), and close to vectors from nephrotic patients. CONCLUSION: CAPD prescription would keep or bring vectors of patients back into the 75% reference ellipse (border for progression from latent to apparent overhydration across the lower pole) regardless of body weight. Whether CAPD patients with vector within the target ellipse have better outcome needs longitudinal evaluation.