Weak extremely high frequency microwaves affect pollen-tube emergence and growth in kiwifruit: pollen grain irradiation and water-mediated effects

Author: Calzoni GL//Borghini F//Del Giudice E//Betti L////
Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Bologna, Italy
Conference/Journal: J Altern Complement Med
Date published: 2003
Other: Volume ID: 9 , Issue ID: 2 , Pages: 217-28 , Word Count: 307

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of weak-intensity extremely high frequency (EHF) microwaves in a model system-the plant organism pollen grain-lacking the placebo effect, available in large populations, to ensure accurate statistical analysis, and whose sensitivity is closely relevant to animal and human biology. DESIGN: This study was blinded using an in vitro pollen germination technique. SUBJECTS AND STUDY INTERVENTIONS: Pollen of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) was either directly irradiated or grown in a medium prepared with irradiated water, using a CromoStim 2000, (PromoPharma, Republic of San Marino) designed for EHF microwave resonance therapy (MRT). It produces weak intensity EHF radiations (40-78 GHz), either continuous wave (cw) or modulated, at a 10 Hz-frequency, with infrared (IR) carried to 635-950 nm, and with an impedance (IPD) of 10(-21) W/Hz cm(2) and a power supply from 0 to 20 mW. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Pollen-tube emergence was expressed as a percent of grains producing a tube and tube elongation was measured at 4 hours of incubation by a turbidimetric assay (A(500)) of cultures, expressed as the net absorbance increase over time 0. RESULTS: At days 2 and 4 during aging, both percent of germination and tube growth significantly and consistently improved over controls in kiwifruit pollen grains irradiated for 30 minutes at day 0 at 10 Hz frequency with the CromoStim 2000. Highly significant effects, either stimulant or inhibitory, were also observed on kiwifruit pollen (stressed or not) growing in a medium prepared with water previously irradiated either cw or modulated. Irradiated water affected pollen germination immediately and even after several days following EHF treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Either direct or indirect EHF irradiation performed by the CromoStim 2000 is effective on pollen growth processes. In both cases, water seemed to play a primary role. According to the quantum electrodynamical coherence theory, our work could also have implications for homeopathy, suggesting a key to explain the efficacy of high dilutions and succussion procedures.