Author: Yamamoto M 1//Kokubo H 1,2//Kokado T 1,2//Haraguchi S 1,2////
National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan) //Institute for Future Technology (Tokyo, Japan) 
Conference/Journal: J Intl Soc Life Info Science
Date published: 2001
Other: Volume ID: 19 , Issue ID: 2 , Pages: 437-444 , Word Count: 255
A phenomenon called 'toh-ate' is performed by a mineral arts expert or a qigong master sender) on an opponent (receiver) at a distance of several meters. When the sender applies toh-ate, the receiver steps back rapidly without being touched. The results of many experiments performed by our group have shown that this phenomenon involves something beyond mere suggestion. To avoid the element of suggestion, all our experiments were conducted under randomized, double-blind conditions with the sender and receiver located in separate rooms.
In our past experiments involving practitioners who exercise toh-ate daily, the frequency histgram of the time differences between sending (qi-emission) and receiving (response) has a large peak around zero. This phenomenon is statistically significant. We have published papers on them in this journal since 1996, including some on brain waves and electrodermal activity as well as other physiological data.
We report here that in a similar toh-ate experiment, but with a different pair of experts who have been practicing a discipline for many years, the attacker did not create any atmosphere of menace before an attack, and that the defender felt presentiment of attack and made a defense. Three large peaks occurred around-41 (p=3.7%)sec, 0 sec(13.4), +36sec(1.3) in the frequency histogram. The Poisson upper-sided risk values are shown between the parentheses. The two peaks have a 5% significance, which was difficult to expect before conducting this
The results concerning the brain waves of the practitioners as well as their heart beat, hand temperature and skin slectric conduction appear in the following 5 papers of this volume.