Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Exercise on Pain, Disability, Balance, Proprioception, Functional Performance and Quality of Life in People with Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Author: Tasneem Zafar1, Saima Zaki1, Md Farhan Alam1, Saurabh Sharma1, Reem Abdullah Babkair2, Shibili Nuhmani2, Sujata Pandita1
1 Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar Marg, New Delhi 110025, India.
2 Department of Physical Therapy, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 34212, Saudi Arabia.
Conference/Journal: J Clin Med
Date published: 2024 Mar 13
Other: Volume ID: 13 , Issue ID: 6 , Pages: 1639 , Special Notes: doi: 10.3390/jcm13061639. , Word Count: 317

Background: Non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) presents significant treatment challenges due to its multifactorial nature. Whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) has emerged as a potential therapeutic modality, offering benefits across various domains, including pain reduction, improved balance, and enhanced quality of life (QoL). The aim of this present systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the effects of WBVE on pain, disability, balance, proprioception, functional performance, and QoL in individuals with NSCLBP. Methods: We comprehensively searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and CENTRAL databases from October 2023 to January 2024, including RCTs with a PEDro score of ≥5 for high-quality evidence. Outcome measures included pain intensity, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) score, balance, proprioception, functional performance (through a progressive iso-inertial lifting evaluation), and QoL (SF-36) in NSCLBP patients. The risk of bias was assessed using ROB-2, and the certainty of evidence for each outcome indicator was analyzed using GRADE. A meta-analysis was conducted using standardized mean differences (SMD) and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes. Results: Ten randomized controlled trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, and nine were suitable for the meta-analysis. The qualitative synthesis revealed WBVE is effective in improving pain, disability, balance, proprioception, and functional performance and QoL. Further, the results of the quantitative review demonstrated WBVE significantly reduced pain [visual analogue scale: SMD = -0.81, 95% CI (-1.11, -0.50), I2 = 0%, p < 0.01], disability [ODI: MD = -3.78, 95% CI (-5.27, -2.29), I2 = 24%, p < 0.01]; RMDQ: MD = -1.43, 95% CI (-2.04, -0.82), I2 = 51%, p < 0.01], balance [SMD = -0.28, 95% CI (-0.52, -0.05), I2 = 0%, p = 0.02], and proprioception [SMD = -4.20, 95% CI (-7.50, -0.89), I2 = 99%, p = 0.01]. Conclusions: This review and meta-analysis indicate that WBVE significantly improves pain, disability, balance and proprioception in individuals with non-specific chronic low back pain. These findings suggest potential benefits of incorporating WBVE into the management strategies for NSCLBP.

Keywords: low back pain; non-invasive pain management; rehabilitation; sensory–motor therapy; tonic vibration reflex.

PMID: 38541865 DOI: 10.3390/jcm13061639