The effect of Baduanjin Qigong combined with five-elements music on anxiety and quality of sleep in asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 infection: A randomised controlled trial

Author: Xian Wang1, Xuan Yin2, Ping Liu3, Anzi Wang1, Wenfang Mu1, Jun Xu1, Weiyan Lu1, Zhuping Chen1, Yan Zhou1, Shifen Xu2, Yan Wang1
1 The Department of Nursing, Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 200071, China.
2 The Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 200071, China.
3 The Department of Nursing, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, China.
Conference/Journal: Heliyon
Date published: 2023 Aug 7
Other: Volume ID: 9 , Issue ID: 8 , Pages: e18962 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e18962. , Word Count: 368

Infections of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) and the subsequent quarantine can culminate in anxious mood and sleep disturbances. The objective of this clinical trial was to investigate the effect of traditional Qigong with music therapy on relieving anxiety and improving the quality of sleep in Chinese adults with COVID-19 infection.

A total of 200 asymptomatic COVID-19 infected patients were randomly assigned into two groups during their quarantine period in Chongming Island, Shanghai. The patients in the treatment group daily received Baduanjin Qigong, five-elements music therapy and routine care, while the patients in the control group only took the routine care. The primary outcome was anxiety levels measured by the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). Secondary outcomes included the quality of sleep measured by the Jenkins Sleep Scale (JSS), the degree of depression measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), as well as the self-efficacy in the Perceived Health Competence Scale (PHCS). An online questionnaire was given to all participants on the day of arrival to determine the baseline for all outcomes and then given again on the day of discharge. A one-way analysis of covariance was used to analyze the differences between the two groups after intervention.

At the end of the intervention, 177 (88.5%) patients finished the questionnaire. Patients in the treatment group had clearly decreased GAD-7 scores (MD = 2.7, 95% CI = 2.3, 3.2) after the daily exercise and music. Patients in the control group had little changes in the GAD-7 (MD = -0.2, 95%CI = -0.7, 0.3, P = 0.07), as well as the PHQ-9 (MD = 0.1, 95%CI = -0.5, 0.6, P = 0.66) after the routine care, when compared to their baseline scores. There were statistical between-group differences in GAD-7 (MD = 2.9, 95% CI = 2.2, 3.6, P < 0.001)and in the PHQ-9 scores (MD = 3.6, 95% CI = 2.9, 4.4, P < 0.001) at the post-treatment. Compared with the control group, patients had significantly lower scores on the JSS (MD = 2.7, 95% CI = 2.0, 3.3, P < 0.001), and higher scores on the PHCS (MD = -5.0, 95% CI = -6.1, -3.9, P < 0.001) after receiving Qigong and the music therapy.

Traditional Baduanjin Qigong and five-elements music therapy help to relieve anxiety and depression, and improve the sleep quality in patients with COVID-19 infection.

Trial registration:
Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2200059800.

Keywords: Anxiety; COVID-19; Five-elements Music; Qigong; Sleep quality.

PMID: 37636423 PMCID: PMC10447985 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e18962