Aging and Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Basic Concepts, Challenges and Strategies

Author: Maria Fraile1, Noemi Eiro1, Luis A Costa1, Arancha Martín1,2, Francisco J Vizoso1,3
1 Research Unit, Fundación Hospital de Jove, Avda. Eduardo Castro, 161, 33920 Gijon, Spain.
2 Department of Emergency, Hospital Universitario de Cabueñes, Los Prados, 395, 33394 Gijon, Spain.
3 Department of Surgery, Fundación Hospital de Jove, Avda. Eduardo Castro, 161, 33920 Gijon, Spain.
Conference/Journal: Biology (Basel)
Date published: 2022 Nov 18
Other: Volume ID: 11 , Issue ID: 11 , Pages: 1678 , Special Notes: doi: 10.3390/biology11111678. , Word Count: 315

Aging and frailty are complex processes implicating multifactorial mechanisms, such as replicative senescence, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, or autophagy disorder. All of these mechanisms drive dramatic changes in the tissue environment, such as senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors and inflamm-aging. Thus, there is a demand for new therapeutic strategies against the devastating effects of the aging and associated diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) participate in a "galaxy" of tissue signals (proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative stress, and proangiogenic, antitumor, antifibrotic, and antimicrobial effects) contributing to tissue homeostasis. However, MSC are also not immune to aging. Three strategies based on MSC have been proposed: remove, rejuvenate, or replace the senescent MSC. These strategies include the use of senolytic drugs, antioxidant agents and genetic engineering, or transplantation of younger MSC. Nevertheless, these strategies may have the drawback of the adverse effects of prolonged use of the different drugs used or, where appropriate, those of cell therapy. In this review, we propose the new strategy of "Exogenous Restitution of Intercellular Signalling of Stem Cells" (ERISSC). This concept is based on the potential use of secretome from MSC, which are composed of molecules such as growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular vesicles and have the same biological effects as their parent cells. To face this cell-free regenerative therapy challenge, we have to clarify key strategy aspects, such as establishing tools that allow us a more precise diagnosis of aging frailty in order to identify the therapeutic requirements adapted to each case, identify the ideal type of MSC in the context of the functional heterogeneity of these cellular populations, to optimize the mass production and standardization of the primary materials (cells) and their secretome-derived products, to establish the appropriate methods to validate the anti-aging effects and to determine the most appropriate route of administration for each case.

Keywords: aging; conditioned medium; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal stem cells; secretome; tissue homeostasis.

PMID: 36421393 DOI: 10.3390/biology11111678