The Effects of Mind-Body Exercises on Chronic Spinal Pain Outcomes: A Synthesis Based on 72 Meta-Analyses

Author: Javier Martinez-Calderon1,2, Maria de-la-Casa-Almeida1, Javier Matias-Soto2,3
1 Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Podiatry, University of Sevilla, Avicena s/n, 41009 Sevilla, Spain.
2 Uncertainty, Mindfulness, Self, Spirituality (UMSS) Research Group, University of Seville, 41004 Seville, Spain.
3 Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malaga, Arquitecto Francisco Peñalosa, 3, 29071 Malaga, Spain.
Conference/Journal: Int J Environ Res Public Health
Date published: 2022 Sep 23
Other: Volume ID: 19 , Issue ID: 19 , Pages: 12062 , Special Notes: doi: 10.3390/ijerph191912062. , Word Count: 227

An umbrella review of systematic reviews with a meta-analysis was developed to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of qigong, tai chi, and yoga in chronic spinal pain outcomes. The CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases were searched. Pain, psychological factors, and quality of life (QOL) were the outcomes of interest. The methodological quality of the reviews was evaluated using the AMSTAR-2 tool. The overlap was calculated using the corrected covered area. A total of 72 meta-analyses drawn from 20 systematic reviews were included and often were rated at a critically low quality. The effects of qigong on chronic low back and neck pain (CLBP and CNP, respectively) were inconsistent, although it improved the physical component of QOL after 12 weeks for CNP. Tai chi was superior to the controls in reducing CLBP; no reviews of interest were found on CNP. Yoga was superior to multiple controls in reducing CLBP, but no relevant effects on depression or QOL were found. QOL, anxiety, depression, and general mood improved with yoga for CNP. Inconsistencies arose related to yoga and CNP. Our findings mainly supported the potential effects of yoga and tai chi on pain-related outcomes, psychological factors, and QOL in populations with CLBP and NP. Clinical and methodological considerations were discussed.

Keywords: chronic low back pain; chronic neck pain; chronic spinal pain; qigong; tai chi; yoga.

PMID: 36231365 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph191912062