Author: James P Fisher1, Tymoteusz Zera2, Julian F R Paton3
1 Manaaki Manawa-The Centre for Heart Research, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical & Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
2 Department of Experimental and Clinical Physiology, Laboratory of Centre for Preclinical Research, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
3 Manaaki Manawa-The Centre for Heart Research, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical & Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Conference/Journal: Handb Clin Neurol
Date published: 2022 Aug 15
Other: Volume ID: 188 , Pages: 279-308 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1016/B978-0-323-91534-2.00006-0. , Word Count: 246
Much of biology is rhythmical and comprises oscillators that can couple. These have optimized energy efficiency and have been preserved during evolution. The respiratory and cardiovascular systems contain numerous oscillators, and importantly, they couple. This coupling is dynamic but essential for an efficient transmission of neural information critical for the precise linking of breathing and oxygen delivery while permitting adaptive responses to changes in state. The respiratory pattern generator and the neural network responsible for sympathetic and cardiovagal (parasympathetic) tone generation interact at many levels ensuring that cardiac output and regional blood flow match oxygen delivery to the lungs and tissues efficiently. The most classic manifestations of these interactions are respiratory sinus arrhythmia and the respiratory modulation of sympathetic nerve activity. These interactions derive from shared somatic and cardiopulmonary afferent inputs, reciprocal interactions between brainstem networks and inputs from supra-pontine regions. Disrupted respiratory-cardiovascular coupling can result in disease, where it may further the pathophysiological sequelae and be a harbinger of poor outcomes. This has been well documented by diminished respiratory sinus arrhythmia and altered respiratory sympathetic coupling in animal models and/or patients with myocardial infarction, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and neurological disorders as stroke, brain trauma, Parkinson disease, or epilepsy. Future research needs to assess the therapeutic potential for ameliorating respiratory-cardiovascular coupling in disease.
Keywords: Blood pressure; Breathing; Cardiac vagal tone; Cardiorespiratory coupling; Heart failure; Heart rate; Hypertension; Parasympathetic nerve activity; Respiratory sinus arrhythmia; Sympathetic nerve activity.
PMID: 35965029 DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-323-91534-2.00006-0