The 3-m backward walk test: reliability and validity in ambulant people with multiple sclerosis

Author: Fatih Söke1, Şeref Demirkaya2, Numan Yavuz3, Elvan Özcan Gülşen4, Öznur Tunca5, Çağri Gülşen6, Selda Karakoç3, Bilge Koçer7, Fatma Aydin7, Canan Yücesan8
1 Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Gulhane Faculty of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, University of Health Sciences.
2 Department of Neurology, Gulhane Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences.
3 Gulhane Institute of Health Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Ankara.
4 Vocational School of Health Services, Elderly Care Program, Anadolu University, Eskisehir.
5 Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Hacettepe University.
6 Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Gazi University.
7 Department of Neurology, University of Health Sciences, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Teaching and Research Hospital.
8 Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.
Conference/Journal: Int J Rehabil Res
Date published: 2022 Sep 1
Other: Volume ID: 45 , Issue ID: 3 , Pages: 209-214 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1097/MRR.0000000000000530. , Word Count: 201

To investigate: (a) the interrater and test-retest reliability of the 3-m backward walk test (3MBW) in ambulant people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS); (b) minimal detectable change (MDC); (c) concurrent and known-groups validity; and (d) the cutoff time to best discriminate fallers from nonfallers with multiple sclerosis (MS). Forty-nine PwMS and 36 healthy people were included in this cross-sectional study. The 3MBW was administered with the timed up and go test, Berg Balance Scale, four square step test, Falls Efficacy Scale-International, and Expanded Disability Status Scale. The 3MBW was simultaneously performed by two independent raters to examine the interrater reliability while was repeated after 7-10 days to examine the test-retest reliability. The 3MBW showed good interrater reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.987-0.989] and excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.854-0.889). The MDC was found to be 1.69 s. The 3MBW had moderate-to-strong correlations with the other measures. For the 3MBW, PwMS had worse performance than healthy people ( P < 0.001), whereas fallers with MS had worse performance than nonfallers with MS ( P < 0.001). The 3MBW time of 7.86 s was determined to best discriminate fallers from nonfallers with MS. The 3MBW is a reliable, simple, and easy-to-administer tool for assessing backward walking among ambulant PwMS.

PMID: 35638202 DOI: 10.1097/MRR.0000000000000530