Effects of Low-Frequency Whole-Body Vibration on Muscle Activation, Fatigue, and Oxygen Consumption in Healthy Young Adults: A Single-Group Repeated-Measures Controlled Trial

Author: Ju-Yul Yoon1,2, Seung-Rok Kang1,2, Hye-Seong Kim1,2, Yu Hui Won1,2, Sung-Hee Park1,2, Jeong-Hwan Seo1,2, Myoung-Hwan Ko1,2, Gi-Wook Kim1,2
1 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Jeonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju,Korea.
2 Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Jeonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Jeonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju,Korea.
Conference/Journal: J Sport Rehabil
Date published: 2022 May 16
Other: Special Notes: doi: 10.1123/jsr.2021-0170. , Word Count: 253

Whole-body vibration (WBV) training improves muscle strength and balance. Few studies have focused on the effects of WBV frequencies below 30 Hz. We aimed to investigate the effect of low-frequency WBV training on muscle activity, fatigue recovery, and oxygen consumption (VO2).

Prospective single-group, repeated-measures study.

In this controlled laboratory setting study, 20 healthy adults (age 23.26 [1.66] y) performed half squats at 0, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 30-Hz WBV. Muscle activity was evaluated using the root mean square and peak electromyography amplitude of 6 muscles (iliocostalis, rectus abdominis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius) obtained via surface electromyography. VO2 was measured during the squats using a gas analyzer, and fatigue recovery was evaluated using measurements of lactate after the squats and after a recovery period. Statistical significance was set at P < .05, and analysis of variance was conducted to determine differences in muscle activity, fatigue, recovery, and VO2, with post hoc analyses as appropriate.

Of the 6 muscles measured, the muscle activity of the gastrocnemius alone significantly increased from 0 Hz at 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 30 Hz based on the root mean square values and at 4, 8, 12, and 30 Hz based on the peak electromyography amplitude values. There were no significant differences in the other muscles. There were no significant differences in VO2 or in lactate levels.

Low-frequency WBV during squat exercises significantly increased the activity of the gastrocnemius medialis only at specific frequencies in healthy young adults. Low-frequency WBV is safe and has the potential to increase muscle activity.

Keywords: electromyography; fatigue recovery; muscle activity; vibration frequency.

PMID: 35584804 DOI: 10.1123/jsr.2021-0170