Virtual mindfulness interventions to promote well-being in adults:A mixed-methods systematic review April 18, 2021

Author: Joy Xu1, Jo Helen2, Leena Noorbhai3, Ami Patel3, Amy Li4
1 McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address:
2 University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
3 McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
4 University of Western, London, ON, Canada.
Conference/Journal: J Affect Disord
Date published: 2022 Jan 4
Other: Special Notes: doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.01.027. , Word Count: 248

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, many have experienced drastic changes in their academic and social lives with ensuing consequences towards their physical and mental well-being. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify virtual mindfulness-based interventions for the well-being of adults aged 19 to 40 years in developed countries and examine the efficacy of these techniques/exercises.

This mixed-methods systematic review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines with a registered PROSPERO protocol. With a convergent integrated synthesis approach, IEEE Xplore, PsychInfo, Web of Science and OVID were searched with a predetermined criteria and search strategy employing booleans and filters for peer-reviewed and grey literature. Data screening and extraction were independently performed by two authors, with a third author settling disagreements after reconciliation. Study quality of selected articles was assessed with two independent authors using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Studies were analyzed qualitatively (precluding meta and statistical analysis) due to the heterogeneous study results from diverse study designs in present literature.

Common mindfulness-based interventions used in the appraised studies included practicing basic mindfulness, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programs, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy programs (MBCT) and the Learning 2 BREATHE (L2B) program.

Studies implementing mindfulness interventions demonstrated an overall improvement in well-being. Modified versions of these interventions can be implemented in a virtual context, so adults can improve their well-being through an accessible format.

Keywords: (motivat*) OR (burnout) OR (student) or (virtual) AND (mindfulness).

PMID: 34990635 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2022.01.027