The Effect of Rhythmic Breathing on the Severity of Sternotomy Pain after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Author: Hassan Babamohamadi1,2, Masoumeh Karkeabadi3, Abbasali Ebrahimian1,4
1 Nursing Care Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan 3513138111, Iran.
2 Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan 3513138111, Iran.
3 Student Research Committee, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan 3513138111, Iran.
4 Emergency Medicine Group, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.
Conference/Journal: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
Date published: 2021 Jun 10
Other: Volume ID: 2021 , Pages: 9933876 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1155/2021/9933876. , Word Count: 295

Moderate-to-severe pain is reported in up to 75% of the patients in the first 48 hours after cardiac surgery. Evidence suggests that distraction is an effective nursing intervention for controlling short-term and transient pain. Distraction can be achieved by various techniques, including progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, and rhythmic breathing (RB). The present research aimed at evaluating the impacts of RB on the severity of sternotomy pain after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG).

This randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients after CABG surgery at the open-heart surgery Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Kowsar Hospital, affiliated to Semnan University of Medical Sciences in Semnan, Iran. The patients were selected through convenience sampling and randomly assigned to two groups, including (1) intervention or RB and (2) control groups. RB was performed in the intervention group every 12 hours (9 a.m. and 9 p.m.) for three consecutive days after the surgery. The control group received only routine care for pain control (opioid analgesics) with no additional interventions. The severity of pain was measured every day in both groups of patients before and after the interventions using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS).

The mean postintervention pain scores were significantly different from the mean preintervention scores in the intervention group (p < 0.05). The changes in the mean pain score in the intervention group were also significantly different from the corresponding changes in the controls (p < 0.05).

Based on the results, the severity of pain after the intervention was significantly lower in the RB group compared to the control. RB was found to be an effective technique for reducing the patients' pain and is therefore recommended as a post-CABG pain control technique. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials: this trial is clinically registered with IRCT20120109008665N7, registered 3 September 2018.

PMID: 34221093 PMCID: PMC8213490 DOI: 10.1155/2021/9933876