Psychometric Properties of the Translated Tai Chi Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale for Chinese Adults with Coronary Heart Disease or Risk Factors

Author: Ting Liu1, Aileen Wai Kiu Chan1, Ruth E Taylor-Piliae2, Kai-Chow Choi1, Sek-Ying Chair1
1 The Nethersole School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong.
2 College of Nursing, The University of Arizona, 1305 N. Martin, P.O. Box 210203, Tucson, AZ 85721-0203, USA.
Conference/Journal: Int J Environ Res Public Health
Date published: 2021 Mar 31
Other: Volume ID: 18 , Issue ID: 7 , Pages: 3651 , Special Notes: doi: 10.3390/ijerph18073651. , Word Count: 231

Tai Chi is an effective exercise option for individuals with coronary heart disease or its associated risk factors. An accurate and systematic assessment of a Mandarin-speaking adults' self-efficacy in maintaining Tai Chi exercise is lacking. Mandarin Chinese has the most speakers worldwide. This study aimed to translate the Tai Chi Exercise Self-Efficacy scale and examine its psychometric properties. The 14-item Tai Chi Exercise Self-Efficacy scale was translated from English into Mandarin Chinese using a forward-translation, back-translation, committee approach, and pre-test procedure. Participants with coronary heart disease or risk factors (n = 140) enrolled in a cross-sectional study for scale validation. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit of the two-factor structure (Tai Chi exercise self-efficacy barriers and performance) to this sample. The translated scale demonstrated high internal consistency, with a Cronbach's α value of 0.97, and good test-retest reliability, with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.86 (p < 0.01). Participants with prior Tai Chi experience reported significantly higher scores than those without (p < 0.001), supporting known-group validity. A significant correlation was observed between the translated scale and total exercise per week (r = 0.37, p < 0.01), providing evidence of concurrent validity. The Mandarin Chinese version of the Tai Chi Exercise Self-Efficacy scale is a valid and reliable scale for Chinese adults with coronary heart disease or risk factors.

Keywords: Tai Chi; coronary heart disease; cross-cultural adaptation; exercise behavior; exercise self-efficacy; physical activity; reliability and validity; translation.

PMID: 33807477 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18073651