The deep and slow breathing characterizing rest favors brain respiratory-drive

Author: Baptiste Girin#1, Maxime Juventin#1, Samuel Garcia1, Laura Lefèvre2, Corine Amat1, Nicolas Fourcaud-Trocmé1, Nathalie Buonviso3
1 Lyon Neuroscience Research Center (CRNL), Inserm U 1028, CNRS UMR 5292, University Lyon 1, 69675, Bron, France.
2 Medical Research Council Brain Network Dynamics Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3TH, UK.
3 Lyon Neuroscience Research Center (CRNL), Inserm U 1028, CNRS UMR 5292, University Lyon 1, 69675, Bron, France.
Conference/Journal: Sci Rep
Date published: 2021 Mar 29
Other: Volume ID: 11 , Issue ID: 1 , Pages: 7044 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-86525-3. , Word Count: 200

A respiration-locked activity in the olfactory brain, mainly originating in the mechano-sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons to air pressure, propagates from the olfactory bulb to the rest of the brain. Interestingly, changes in nasal airflow rate result in reorganization of olfactory bulb response. By leveraging spontaneous variations of respiratory dynamics during natural conditions, we investigated whether respiratory drive also varies with nasal airflow movements. We analyzed local field potential activity relative to respiratory signal in various brain regions during waking and sleep states. We found that respiration regime was state-specific, and that quiet waking was the only vigilance state during which all the recorded structures can be respiration-driven whatever the respiratory frequency. Using CO2-enriched air to alter respiratory regime associated to each state and a respiratory cycle based analysis, we evidenced that the large and strong brain drive observed during quiet waking was related to an optimal trade-off between depth and duration of inspiration in the respiratory pattern, characterizing this specific state. These results show for the first time that changes in respiration regime affect cortical dynamics and that the respiratory regime associated with rest is optimal for respiration to drive the brain.

PMID: 33782487 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-86525-3