The effects on pain, physical function, and quality of life of quadriceps strengthening exercises combined with Baduanjin qigong in older adults with knee osteoarthritis: a quasi-experimental study

Author: Fenglan Wang1,2, Xiaoli Zhang2, Xiao Tong3, Min Zhang2, Fengmei Xing2, Kun Yang2, Nana Jiao2, Zhiguang Duan4
1 School of Nursing, Shanxi Medical University, 56 Xinjian Road, Yingze District, Taiyuan, 030001, China.
2 College of Nursing and Rehabilitation, North China University of Science and Technology, 21 Bohai Road, Caofeidian District, Tangshan, 063210, China.
3 Department of Joint Surgery, The Second Hospital of Tangshan, 21 Jianshe Road, Lubei District, Tangshan, 063000, China.
4 School of Nursing, Shanxi Medical University, 56 Xinjian Road, Yingze District, Taiyuan, 030001, China.
Conference/Journal: BMC Musculoskelet Disord
Date published: 2021 Mar 29
Other: Volume ID: 22 , Issue ID: 1 , Pages: 313 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1186/s12891-021-04179-8. , Word Count: 260

Exercise is recommended as a principal treatment for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). However, the best choice for an optimal exercise program able to promote long-term compliance in KOA patients is not clear. This study aims to compare the effect of combined exercise (CE: quadriceps strengthening exercises (QSE) and Baduanjin qigong training (BDJ)) versus QSE alone and BDJ alone on older adults with KOA.

A three-arm, quasi-experimental trial with repeated measurements was used. As a cluster randomized trial, participants from three community centers were assigned respectively to QSE group, BDJ group and CE group. We assessed pain intensity, physical function, self-efficacy, and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) using standardized instruments at baseline, 3 months and 6 months follow-up.

One hundred and twenty-eight participants with KOA aged over 60 completed the study. Over the 6 months, there were significant group interaction effects on pain intensity (F = 28.888, P < 0.001), physical function (F = 26.646, P < 0.001), and self-efficacy (F = 22.359, P < 0.001), and, based on a short form-12 item health survey questionnaire (SF-12), physical component summary (F = 7.470, P < 0.001), and mental component summary (F = 10.207, P < 0.001). Overall, the CE group exhibited significantly greater improvement in all outcomes when compared to the QSE group and the BDJ group.

CE treatment is more effective than QSE and BDJ in pain relief, increasing physical function, improving self-efficacy, and raising quality-of-life in community-dwelling KOA older adults. Moreover, it promotes long-term compliance in KOA community patients.

Trial registration:
Chinese Clinical Trails Registry number ChiCTR2000033387 (retrospectively registered). Registered 30 May 2020.

Keywords: Baduanjin qigong; Knee osteoarthritis; Quadriceps strengthening exercises.

PMID: 33781238 DOI: 10.1186/s12891-021-04179-8