Behavioral and ERP Correlates of Long-Term Physical and Mental Training on a Demanding Switch Task

Author: Pablo I Burgos1,2, Gabriela Cruz3, Teresa Hawkes4, Ignacia Rojas-Sepúlveda2, Marjorie Woollacott5
1 Department of Neuroscience, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
2 Department of Physical Therapy, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
3 Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
4 Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR, United States.
5 Department of Human Physiology and Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, United States.
Conference/Journal: Front Psychol
Date published: 2021 Feb 23
Other: Volume ID: 12 , Pages: 569025 , Special Notes: doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.569025. , Word Count: 337

Physical and mental training are associated with positive effects on executive functions throughout the lifespan. However, evidence of the benefits of combined physical and mental regimes over a sedentary lifestyle remain sparse. The goal of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms, from a source-resolved event-related-potential perspective, that could explain how practicing long-term physical and mental exercise can benefit neural processing during the execution of an attention switching task. Fifty-three healthy community volunteers who self-reported long-term practice of Tai Chi (n = 10), meditation + exercise (n = 16), simple aerobics (n = 15), or a sedentary lifestyle (n = 12), aged 47.8 ± 14.6 (SD) were included in this analysis. All participants undertook high-density electroencephalography recording during a switch paradigm. Our results indicate that people who practice physical and mental exercise perform better in a task-switching paradigm. Our analysis revealed an additive effect of the combined practice of physical and mental exercise over physical exercise only. In addition, we confirmed the participation of frontal, parietal and cingulate areas as generators of event-related-potential components (N2-like and P3-like) commonly associated to the performance of switch tasks. Particularly, the N2-like component of the parietal and frontal domains showed significantly greater amplitudes in the exercise and mental training groups compared with aerobics and sedentary groups. Furthermore, we showed better performance associated with greater N2-like amplitudes. Our multivariate analysis revealed that activity type was the most relevant factor to explain the difference between groups, with an important influence of age, and body mass index, and with small effects of educational years, cardiovascular capacity, and sex. These results suggest that chronic combined physical and mental training may confer significant benefits to executive function in normally aging adults, probably through more efficient early attentional processing. Future experimental studies are needed to confirm our results and understand the mechanisms on parieto-frontal networks that contribute to the cognitive improvement associated with practicing combined mental and aerobic exercise, while carefully controlling confounding factors, such as age and body mass index.

Keywords: EEG sources; ERP; executive function; physical-mental practice; switching.

PMID: 33708155 PMCID: PMC7940199 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.569025