A Mathematical Theory of Communication

Author: Shannon, C. E.
Conference/Journal: Bell Systems Technical Journal
Date published: 1948 July, October
Other: Volume ID: 27 , Pages: 379-423, 623-656 , Word Count: 116

THE recent development of various methods of modulation such as PCM and PPM which exchange
bandwidth for signal-to-noise ratio has intensified the interest in a general theory of communication. A
basis for such a theory is contained in the important papers of Nyquist1 and Hartley2 on this subject. In the
present paper we will extend the theory to include a number of new factors, in particular the effect of noise
in the channel, and the savings possible due to the statistical structure of the original message and due to the
nature of the final destination of the information.


keywords chaos entropy information theory