Influence of Low-Magnitude High-Frequency Vibration on Bone Cells and Bone Regeneration

Author: Lena Steppe1, Astrid Liedert1, Anita Ignatius1, Melanie Haffner-Luntzer1
1 Institute of Orthopedic Research and Biomechanics, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany.
Conference/Journal: Front Bioeng Biotechnol
Date published: 2020 Oct 21
Other: Volume ID: 8 , Pages: 595139 , Special Notes: doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2020.595139. , Word Count: 239

Bone is a mechanosensitive tissue for which mechanical stimuli are crucial in maintaining its structure and function. Bone cells react to their biomechanical environment by activating molecular signaling pathways, which regulate their proliferation, differentiation, and matrix production. Bone implants influence the mechanical conditions in the adjacent bone tissue. Optimizing their mechanical properties can support bone regeneration. Furthermore, external biomechanical stimulation can be applied to improve implant osseointegration and accelerate bone regeneration. One promising anabolic therapy is vertical whole-body low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV). This form of vibration is currently extensively investigated to serve as an easy-to-apply, cost-effective, and efficient treatment for bone disorders and regeneration. This review aims to provide an overview of LMHFV effects on bone cells in vitro and on implant integration and bone fracture healing in vivo. In particular, we review the current knowledge on cellular signaling pathways which are influenced by LMHFV within bone tissue. Most of the in vitro experiments showed that LMHFV is able to enhance mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and osteoblast proliferation. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and osteoblasts was shown to be accelerated by LMHFV, whereas osteoclastogenic differentiation was inhibited. Furthermore, LMHFV increased bone regeneration during osteoporotic fracture healing and osseointegration of orthopedic implants. Important mechanosensitive pathways mediating the effects of LMHFV might be the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, the estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathway, and cytoskeletal remodeling.

Keywords: LMHFV; bone; fracture healing; mechanostimulation; osseointegration; regeneration; vibration.

PMID: 33195165 PMCID: PMC7609921 DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2020.595139