The Polyvagal Theory: New Insights Into Adaptive Reactions of the Autonomic Nervous System

Author: Stephen W Porges 1
1 Brain-Body Center, Department of Psychiatry (MC 912), 1601 W. Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
Conference/Journal: Cleve Clin J Med.
Date published: 2009 Apr
Other: Volume ID: 76 Suppl 2(Suppl 2) , Pages: S86-90 , Word Count: 152

PMID: 19376991 PMCID: PMC3108032 DOI: 10.3949/ccjm.76.s2.17
Free PMC article

The polyvagal theory describes an autonomic nervous system that is influenced by the central nervous system, sensitive to afferent influences, characterized by an adaptive reactivity dependent on the phylogeny of the neural circuits, and interactive with source nuclei in the brainstem regulating the striated muscles of the face and head. The theory is dependent on accumulated knowledge describing the phylogenetic transitions in the vertebrate autonomic nervous system. Its specific focus is on the phylogenetic shift between reptiles and mammals that resulted in specific changes to the vagal pathways regulating the heart. As the source nuclei of the primary vagal efferent pathways regulating the heart shifted from the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus in reptiles to the nucleus ambiguus in mammals, a face-heart connection evolved with emergent properties of a social engagement system that would enable social interactions to regulate visceral state.