The varieties of contemplative experience: A mixed-methods study of meditation-related challenges in Western Buddhists.

Author: Lindahl JR1, Fisher NE2, Cooper DJ3, Rosen RK4, Britton WB3,4
Author Information:
1Cogut Center for the Humanities, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.
2Department of Religious Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America.
3Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.
4Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.
Conference/Journal: PLoS One.
Date published: 2017 May 24
Other: Volume ID: 12 , Issue ID: 5 , Pages: e0176239 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176239. eCollection 2017. , Word Count: 286


Buddhist-derived meditation practices are currently being employed as a popular form of health promotion. While meditation programs draw inspiration from Buddhist textual sources for the benefits of meditation, these sources also acknowledge a wide range of other effects beyond health-related outcomes. The Varieties of Contemplative Experience study investigates meditation-related experiences that are typically underreported, particularly experiences that are described as challenging, difficult, distressing, functionally impairing, and/or requiring additional support. A mixed-methods approach featured qualitative interviews with Western Buddhist meditation practitioners and experts in Theravāda, Zen, and Tibetan traditions. Interview questions probed meditation experiences and influencing factors, including interpretations and management strategies. A follow-up survey provided quantitative assessments of causality, impairment and other demographic and practice-related variables. The content-driven thematic analysis of interviews yielded a taxonomy of 59 meditation-related experiences across 7 domains: cognitive, perceptual, affective, somatic, conative, sense of self, and social. Even in cases where the phenomenology was similar across participants, interpretations of and responses to the experiences differed considerably. The associated valence ranged from very positive to very negative, and the associated level of distress and functional impairment ranged from minimal and transient to severe and enduring. In order to determine what factors may influence the valence, impact, and response to any given experience, the study also identified 26 categories of influencing factors across 4 domains: practitioner-level factors, practice-level factors, relationships, and health behaviors. By identifying a broader range of experiences associated with meditation, along with the factors that contribute to the presence and management of experiences reported as challenging, difficult, distressing or functionally impairing, this study aims to increase our understanding of the effects of contemplative practices and to provide resources for mediators, clinicians, meditation researchers, and meditation teachers.

PMID: 28542181 PMCID: PMC5443484 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176239

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