Author: Bordoni B1, Morabito B2, Simonelli M3
1Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Foundation Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milan, ITA.
2Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Osteopathic Centre for Research and Studies, Milan, ITA.
3Integrative/Complimentary Medicine, French-Italian School of Osteopathy, Pisa, ITA.
Date published: 2020 Jan 13
Other: Volume ID: 12 , Issue ID: 1 , Pages: e6645 , Special Notes: doi: 10.7759/cureus.6645. , Word Count: 151
The diaphragm muscle is the most important contractile district used for breathing. Like other muscles in the human body, it is subject to ageing and sarcopenia. Sarcopenia can be classified as primary (or age-related) when there are no local or systemic pathologies that cause a functional and morphological detriment of skeletal musculature. Secondary sarcopenia occurs when there is a cause or more pathological causes (illness, malnutrition, immobility) related or unrelated to ageing. In the elderly population, transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) decreases by 20-41%, with a decline in the overall strength of 30% (the strength of the expiratory muscles also decreases). The article discusses the adaptation of the diaphragm muscle to ageing and some other ailments and co-morbidities, such as back pain, emotional alterations, motor incoordination, and cognitive disorders, which are related to breathing.
Copyright © 2020, Bordoni et al.
KEYWORDS: ageing; diaphragm; fascia; phrenic nerve; sarcopenia; skeletal muscle; vagus nerve
PMID: 32064216 PMCID: PMC7011578 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.6645