The gut microbiota to the brain axis in the metabolic control.

Author: Grasset E1, Burcelin R2,3
1Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, 41345, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Toulouse, France.
3Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 1048, Institut des Maladies Métaboliques et Cardiovasculaires (I2MC), Team 2 : 'Intestinal Risk Factors, Diabetes, Université Paul Sabatier (UPS), Dyslipidemia', F-31432, Toulouse, Cedex 4, France.
Conference/Journal: Rev Endocr Metab Disord.
Date published: 2019 Oct 28
Other: Special Notes: doi: 10.1007/s11154-019-09511-1. [Epub ahead of print] , Word Count: 236

The regulation of glycemia is under a tight neuronal detection of glucose levels performed by the gut-brain axis and an efficient efferent neuronal message sent to the peripheral organs, as the pancreas to induce insulin and inhibit glucagon secretions. The neuronal detection of glucose levels is performed by the autonomic nervous system including the enteric nervous system and the vagus nerve innervating the gastro-intestinal tractus, from the mouth to the anus. A dysregulation of this detection leads to the one of the most important current health issue around the world i.e. diabetes mellitus. Furthemore, the consequences of diabetes mellitus on neuronal homeostasis and activities participate to the aggravation of the disease establishing a viscious circle. Prokaryotic cells as bacteria, reside in our gut. The strong relationship between prokaryotic cells and our eukaryotic cells has been established long ago, and prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in our body have evolved synbiotically. For the last decades, studies demonstrated the critical role of the gut microbiota on the metabolic control and how its shift can induce diseases such as diabetes. Despite an important increase of knowledge, few is known about 1) how the gut microbiota influences the neuronal detection of glucose and 2) how the diabetes mellitus-induced gut microbiota shift observed participates to the alterations of autonomic nervous system and the gut-brain axis activity.

KEYWORDS: Diabetic neuropathy; Entero-endocrine hormones; Glucose; Gut microbiota; Peripheral nervous system

PMID: 31656993 DOI: 10.1007/s11154-019-09511-1