Transcriptional analysis of Volvox photoreceptors suggests the existence of different cell-type specific light-signaling pathways.

Author: Kianianmomeni A1, Hallmann A
1Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology of Plants, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, D-33615, Bielefeld, Germany,
Conference/Journal: Curr Genet.
Date published: 2015 Feb
Other: Volume ID: 61 , Issue ID: 1 , Pages: 3-18 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1007/s00294-014-0440-3. Epub 2014 Aug 13. , Word Count: 320

Photosynthetic organisms, e.g., plants including green algae, use a sophisticated light-sensing system, composed of primary photoreceptors and additional downstream signaling components, to monitor changes in the ambient light environment towards adjust their growth and development. Although a variety of cellular processes, e.g., initiation of cleavage division and final cellular differentiation, have been shown to be light-regulated in the green alga Volvox carteri, little is known about the underlying light perception and signaling pathways. This multicellular alga possesses at least 12 photoreceptors, i.e., one phototropin (VcPhot), four cryptochromes (VcCRYa, VcCRYp, VcCRYd1, and VcCRYd2), and seven members of rhodopsin-like photoreceptors (VR1, VChR1, VChR2, VcHKR1, VcHKR2, VcHKR3, and VcHKR4), which display distinct light-dependent chemical processes based on their protein architectures and associated chromophores. Gene expression analyses could show that the transcript levels of some of the photoreceptor genes (e.g., VChR1 and VcHKR1) accumulate during division cleavages, while others (e.g., VcCRYa, VcCRYp, and VcPhot) accumulate during final cellular differentiation. However, the pattern of transcript accumulation changes when the alga switches to the sexual development. Eight photoreceptor genes, e.g., VcPhot, VcCRYp, and VcHKR1, are highly expressed in the somatic cells, while only the animal-type rhodopsin VR1 was found to be highly expressed in the reproductive cells/embryos during both asexual and sexual life cycles. Moreover, accumulation of VChR1 and VcCRYa transcripts is more sensitive to light and changes in response to more than one light quality. Obviously, different regulatory mechanisms underlying gene expression control transcript accumulation of photoreceptors not only during development, but also in a cell-type specific way and in response to various external signals such as light quality. The transcriptional patterns described in this study show that Volvox photoreceptors are mostly expressed in a cell-type specific manner. This gives reason to believe that cell-type specific light-signaling pathways allow differential regulation of cellular and developmental processes in response to the environmental light cues.

PMID: 25117716 DOI: 10.1007/s00294-014-0440-3