Radial shockwave treatment promotes human mesenchymal stem cell self-renewal and enhances cartilage healing.

Author: Zhang H1, Li ZL2, Yang F3, Zhang Q1, Su XZ1, Li J1, Zhang N1,4, Liu CH1, Mao N5, Zhu H6
Author Information:
1Department of Orthopedics, Sports Medicine Center, People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China.
2Department of Orthopedics, Sports Medicine Center, People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China. lizhongli@263.net.
3BNLMS, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics & Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Beijing, China.
4Department of Orthopedics, People's Liberation Army Rocket Force General Hospital, Beijing, China.
5Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road 27, Beijing, China.
6Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Tai Ping Road 27, Beijing, China. zhudingdingabc@163.com.
Conference/Journal: Stem Cell Res Ther.
Date published: 2018 Mar 9
Other: Volume ID: 9 , Issue ID: 1 , Pages: 54 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1186/s13287-018-0805-5. , Word Count: 331


BACKGROUND: Shockwaves and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely accepted as useful tools for many orthopedic applications. However, the modulatory effects of shockwaves on MSCs remain controversial. In this study, we explored the influence of radial shockwaves on human bone marrow MSCs using a floating model in vitro and evaluated the healing effects of these cells on cartilage defects in vivo using a rabbit model.

METHODS: MSCs were cultured in vitro, harvested, resuspended, and treated with various doses of radial shockwaves in a floating system. Cell proliferation was evaluated by growth kinetics and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. In addition, the cell cycle and apoptotic activity were analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting. To explore the "stemness" of MSCs, cell colony-forming tests and multidifferentiation assays were performed. We also examined the MSC subcellular structure using transmission electron microscopy and examined the healing effects of these cells on cartilage defects by pathological analyses.

RESULTS: The results of growth kinetics and CCK-8 assays showed that radial shockwave treatment significantly promoted MSC proliferation. Enhanced cell growth was also reflected by an increase in the numbers of cells in the S phase and a decrease in the numbers of cells arrested in the G0/G1 phase in shockwave-treated MSCs. Unexpectedly, shockwaves caused a slight increase in MSC apoptosis rates. Furthermore, radial shockwaves promoted self-replicating activity of MSCs. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that MSCs were metabolically activated by shockwave treatment. In addition, radial shockwaves favored MSC osteogenic differentiation but inhibited adipogenic activity. Most importantly, MSCs pretreated by radial shockwaves exhibited an enhanced healing effect on cartilage defects in vivo. Compared with control groups, shockwave-treated MSCs combined with bio-scaffolds significantly improved histological scores of injured rabbit knees.

CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we found that radial shockwaves significantly promoted the proliferation and self-renewal of MSCs in vitro and safely accelerated the cartilage repair process in vivo, indicating favorable clinical outcomes.

KEYWORDS: Cartilage repair; Mesenchymal stem cell; Radial shockwave

PMID: 29523197 PMCID: PMC5845163 DOI: 10.1186/s13287-018-0805-5

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