Effects of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Author: Lai CC1, Tu YK2, Wang TG1, Huang YT2, Chien KL2
Author Information:
1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
2Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Conference/Journal: Age Ageing.
Date published: 2018 Feb 17
Other: Special Notes: doi: 10.1093/ageing/afy009. [Epub ahead of print] , Word Count: 251


Background: A variety of different types of exercise are promoted to improve muscle strength and physical performance in older people.

Objective: We aimed to determine the relative effects of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people.

Design: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Subjects: Adults aged 60 and over.

Methods: Evidence from randomised controlled trials of resistance training, endurance training and whole-body vibration were combined. The effects of exercise interventions on lean body mass, muscle strength and physical performance were evaluated by conducting a network meta-analysis to compare multiple interventions and usual care. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. A meta-regression was performed to assess potential effect modifiers.

Results: Data were obtained from 30 trials involving 1,405 participants (age range: 60-92 years). No significant differences were found between the effects of exercise or usual care on lean body mass. Resistance training (minimum 6 weeks duration) achieved greater muscle strength improvement than did usual care (12.8 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5-17.0 kg). Resistance training and whole-body vibration were associated with greater physical performance improvement compared with usual care (2.6 times greater [95% CI: 1.3-3.9] and 2.1 times greater [95% CI: 0.5-3.7], respectively).

Conclusions: Resistance training is the most effect intervention to improve muscle strength and physical performance in older people. Our findings also suggest that whole-body vibration is beneficial for physical performance. However, none of the three exercise interventions examined had a significant effect on lean body mass.

PMID: 29471456 DOI: 10.1093/ageing/afy009

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