The Neural Mechanisms of Meditative Practices: Novel Approaches for Healthy Aging.

Author: Acevedo BP1, Pospos S2, Lavretsky H2
1Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA USA ; Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
2Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA USA.
Conference/Journal: Curr Behav Neurosci Rep.
Date published: 2016
Other: Volume ID: 3 , Issue ID: 4 , Pages: 328-339 , Word Count: 270

OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices.

METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e.g., yoga) that combine movement, including chanting, with breath practices and meditation.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent meta-analyses and individual studies demonstrated common brain effects for attention-based meditative practices and active-based meditations in areas involved in reward processing and learning, attention and memory, awareness and sensory integration, and self-referential processing and emotional control, while deactivation was seen in the amygdala, an area implicated in emotion processing. Unique effects for mindfulness practices were found in brain regions involved in body awareness, attention, and the integration of emotion and sensory processing. Effects specific to active-based meditations appeared in brain areas involved in self-control, social cognition, language, speech, tactile stimulation, sensorimotor integration, and motor function.

SUMMARY: This review suggests that mind-body practices can target different brain systems that are involved in the regulation of attention, emotional control, mood, and executive cognition that can be used to treat or prevent mood and cognitive disorders of aging, such as depression and caregiver stress, or serve as "brain fitness" exercise. Benefits may include improving brain functional connectivity in brain systems that generally degenerate with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other aging-related diseases.

KEYWORDS: Aging; Brain; Meditation; Mindfulness; Qi Gong; Tai Chi; Yoga

PMID: 27909646 PMCID: PMC5110576 DOI: 10.1007/s40473-016-0098-x