Author: Katiyar A1, Duncan RL2, Sarkar K3.
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA. 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA ; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA. 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA ; Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA.
Conference/Journal: J Ther Ultrasound.
Date published: 2014 Jan 2
Other: Volume ID: 2 , Pages: 1 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1186/2050-5736-2-1 , Word Count: 314
Mechanical stimulation of bone increases bone mass and fracture healing, at least in part, through increases in proliferation of osteoblasts and osteoprogenitor cells. Researchers have previously performed in vitro studies of ultrasound-induced osteoblast proliferation but mostly used fixed ultrasound settings and have reported widely varying and inconclusive results. Here we critically investigated the effects of the excitation parameters of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) stimulation on proliferation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblastic cells in monolayer cultures.
We used a custom-designed ultrasound exposure system to vary the key ultrasound parameters-intensity, frequency and excitation duration. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded in 12-well cell culture plates. Unless otherwise specified, treated cells, in groups of three, were excited twice for 10 min with an interval of 24 h in between after cell seeding. Proliferation rates of these cells were determined using BrdU and MTS assays 24 h after the last LIPUS excitation. All data are presented as the mean ± standard error. The statistical significance was determined using Student's two-sample two-tailed t tests.
Using discrete LIPUS intensities ranging from 1 to 500 mW/cm(2) (SATA, spatial average-temporal average), we found that approximately 75 mW/cm(2) produced the greatest increase in osteoblast proliferation. Ultrasound exposures at higher intensity (approximately 465 mW/cm(2)) significantly reduced proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells, suggesting that high-intensity pulsed ultrasound may increase apoptosis or loss of adhesion in these cells. Variation in LIPUS frequency from 0.5 MHz to 5 MHz indicated that osteoblast proliferation rate was not frequency dependent. We found no difference in the increase in proliferation rate if LIPUS was applied for 30 min/day or 10 min/day, indicating a habituation response.
This study concludes that a short-term stimulation with optimum intensity can enhance proliferation of preosteoblast-like bone cells that plays an important role in bone formation and accelerated fracture healing, also suggesting a possible therapeutic treatment for reduced bone mass.
LIPUS; Mechanical stimulation; Osteoblast; Proliferation; Ultrasound