Author: Pei Xirong//Li Xiangmian
Affiliation: China 
Conference/Journal: 2nd Int Conf on Qigong
Date published: 1989
Other: Pages: 291 , Word Count: 1309
As a historical phenomenon and ideology in society, religion largely affects the development and advances of humankind. Chinese Taoism also actively contributed formation and nourishment to Chinese culture.
1. Taoism came and was degenerated from ancient sorcery
and thoughts and methods of supernatural being, still had many
statements and methods about dan and longevity or uninterrupted
life. Britain famous scholar Dr. Li indicated in 'China science and technology history' that Taoism thoughts produced uninterrupted life thoughts at the beginning but in other countries had not these thoughts, which had the importance to science which was difficult to estimate. In the practice they were featured in longevity Qigong of Taoism mind and life exercises.
Taoists were most apt to supernatural methods among philosophers before Qian Dynasty, because Laozi was taken as the chair an Of Taoist, but who did not mention supernatural being in his theory evidence and weapons were provided to latter supernatural beings, such as no doing and peace and quiet, softness making, returning back to life, male and female unity and etc. furthermore Zhuangzi greatly talk about supernatural being and 'restoration of shape and spirit, unity Of heaven and people'. In the West Han dynasty popular 'Doctrine Of peace' was the earliest, which included heaven, earth, five elements, branches, catastrophe and ghost and etc. On the hand of longevity the theory of spirit, energy stream, mind combination was proposed. Meanwhile, Zhouyi Caitongqi, which was a epochmaking works in china ancient longevity history, was written by Wei Boyang, his 'Great Change', ZHuang Lao', 'Stove Five' consisted of a complete theoretical longevity system of union of three, he took the doctrine of 'Huang Lao' as a Guide to construct a theoretical frame of Yao Gua of 'Changes', used a combining method of internal and external dan to cultivate spirit with jing abandoned, morality going the three Yuans, seminal fluid constricted in body, bones and muscles being hard, every evil excluded, true energy existing forever and amassed, shapes becoming supernatural being. In the system, Wei Boyang developed The Change Of Books and 'Changes' which presented the universal union pattern of heaven and human being, to combine the Yinyang doctrine of five elements with Huang Lao thoughts to establish a stove-pot model in which heaven changes, human longevity, external dan making and internal dan's cultivation was included. In the model heaven and earth were a big stove-pot indicated in divinatory shape, Qian Heaven Kun Earth, body was a small stove pot located the position, Head Qian Kun Earth. This was 'Heaven and Earth were Qian and Kun' so called in 'Caitongqi', which sucked heaven, earth and body in one system, the with son and the moon up and down, Yin and Yang interchanged, -energy stream flowing up and down in body was indicated in Li and Kan. The son and the moon runs between the heaven and the earth, True Energy stream-runs in body, this is that 'changes' makes the position with changes in it..
The early Taoism thoughts stated the physiological foundation of longevity in which Huangting Jing had the biggest influence, Hunagting Jing was divided into two parts 'External Scene Jing' and 'internal Scene Jing , which was not only the important book of Taoism and Maoshan Zong but also stressed by Rany famous people after East Jin Dynasty for example Wang Xishi, Huang TingJin, Su Shi, Du Yangxiu, Lu You and etc, from which we may see the influence. . .
Another contributions of early Taoism was the theory of many methods' training made by Ge Hong and Tao Hong Jing, who played an important role in changing masses religion into official religion, understood the medical theory, dongs' theory were higher officers and advocated the methods of training Jindan. Ge Hong indicated in Baopuzi systematically the theory of supernatural beings and longevity methods which Taoism paid much attention to.
2. Before East Han Dynasty the way to keep in good health was taken as a longevity method and therapy. Besides the treatment individual exercise was paid much attention to. Branches of daoyin and energy stream running, sexuality, food eating and the way to keep in good health were formed on the basis of witch doctors' methods. In the period of Sun and Tang dynasties Taoism got a higher-position in society, people believe Tao were largely in creasing, classics were collected into Zang, studying Tao was very popular. These were benefit for the propagation and the research of Tao, new features were that the methods and the theories of medicine, Buddhism, Confucius and Wu and etc. were amassed and tended to grow up naturally. A lot of works in the way to keep the health, such as 'Yang Sheng Yan Ming Lu', 'Yang Xing Zhuan', 'Qi Jue', 'She Sheng Zhen Lu', 'Yang Sheng Key words', 'Breathing Jing', 'Daoyin San Guang Jing', 'She Sheng Jing', 'Kang Zhen Ren Qi Jue' and etc., appeared. Taoism outcomes here great in Tang dynasty.
The word of 'Qigong' may be seen in works in Tang dynasty. 'Tai Tiao Qi Jing' said 'After Qigong exercise, spreading hairs and taking off clothes. 'Yan Ling Juan Xiu Yang Da Lue' said 'What can not be saved and cured is that who can not exercise Qigong well'. 'Zhong Shun Yu Bian Fu Qi Jing' said 'excellent papers in Qigong and their methods are nearly the same, if good at one, one will be two'. 'Qigong' was not popular in ancient works before Tang and Song Daoyin and Running Energy Stream was generally used, which included Gesture Gong and Quiet gong, later internal Gong of ways to keep the health and food eating, dan drugs were combined with dantian used to generalize, this was also different from external dan. After Ming and Qing Dynasties Wu Shu was largely development, and Internal Gong Training methods were sucked in, 'Rigong' was used gradually; and the concept of longevity and ways to keep health were formed in human body science.
3. Functions and activities are states of energy stream running life is the nature of energy stream 'Xing Ming Gun Zhi' said that 'life is the beginning of energy stream, the stream is based on life and produced by life Xing without life can not stand up, life without Xing can not exist. From the point of view, Gesture Gong are divided into three kinds, at large Gong which pays much attention to spirit, mind and their cultivation belongs to 'Xing Gong', Gong which pays much attention to energy stream belongs to 'Ming Gong', Gong which pays to the two sides belongs to 'Xing and Ming double training'. generally speaking, Taoism Qigong pays much attention to Ming more than Xing but not abandoning Zing, Buddhism Qigong takes mind and spirit as Xing, mainly cultivate Xing, Xing more than Ming. Confucious Qigong keeps mind and cultivate Xing, training body and mind, spirit and energy stream not dividing each other. Qigong methods of experts in Wu Shu are mainly the ways keeping health, and science establishes life.
In Jin Dynasty Full True Taoism was developed quickly, especially Qiu Chuji was called by first emperor of Yuan to the west region to talk about Tao on snow mountain to whom king's writings was given, the Taoism went up to the top, they took Caitongqi, Songs of understanding truth as the most extreme jings, stressed on double training of Xing and Ming, the double training avoided seven emotions, happiness, anger, anxiety, thinking, being -afraid, astonishment and six, wind, cold, hot, humidity, dry, fire, and enhanced the exercises Jing, energy stream and spirit and mind, the steps were from constructor of ground, big and small rotation of Zhoutian, package of drugs, internal dan and etc. Taoism concentrated mind on true vacancy or points of energy stream. But other branches had not these steps. In all exercisers should keep in mind that. one thought's production is fire, that every scene disappears is the spring.