An updated overview on the relationship between human gut microbiome dysbiosis and psychiatric and psychological disorders

Author: Alejandro Borrego-Ruiz1, Juan J Borrego2
Affiliation: <sup>1</sup> Departamento de Psicología Social y de las Organizaciones, Facultad de Psicología, UNED, Madrid, Spain. <sup>2</sup> Departamento de Microbiología, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain. Electronic address:
Conference/Journal: Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry
Date published: 2023 Sep 8
Other: Special Notes: doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2023.110861. , Word Count: 202

There is a lot of evidence establishing that nervous system development is related to the composition and functions of the gut microbiome. In addition, the central nervous system (CNS) controls the imbalance of the intestinal microbiota, constituting a bidirectional communication system. At present, various gut-brain crosstalk routes have been described, including immune, endocrine and neural circuits via the vagal pathway. Several empirical data have associated gut microbiota alterations (dysbiosis) with neuropsychiatric diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, autism and Parkinson's disease, and with other psychological disorders like anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunctions. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) therapy has shown that the gut microbiota can transfer behavioral features to recipient animals, which provides strong evidence to establish a causal-effect relationship. Interventions, based on prebiotics, probiotics or synbiotics, have demonstrated an important influence of microbiota on neurological disorders by both the synthesis of neuroactive compounds that interact with the nervous system and by the regulation of inflammatory and endocrine processes. Further research is needed to demonstrate the influence of gut microbiota dysbiosis on psychiatric and psychological disorders, and how microbiota-based interventions may be used as potential therapeutic tools.

Keywords: Dysbiosis; Gut microbiota; Gut microbiota-CNS axis; Human microbiome; Neuropsychiatric diseases; Psychological disorders.

PMID: 37690584 DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2023.110861