Effectiveness of mind-body exercise via Baduanjin on physical and psychological outcomes in patients with pulmonary ground-glass nodules: A non-randomized controlled pilot study

Author: Ying Lu1, Jie Li2, Wei Ni3, Jiaqi Li4, Jie Song5, Jing Jiang6, Xiaoting Zhao7
Affiliation: <sup>1</sup> Chinese Qigong Laboratory, Shanghai Qigong Research Institute, Shanghai, China. <sup>2</sup> Taiji Health Center, Shanghai University of TCM/Shanghai Academy of TCM, Shanghai, China. <sup>3</sup> Department of Respiratory Medicine, Pudong Branch, Longhua Hospital Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China. <sup>4</sup> Department of Oncology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China. <sup>5</sup> Sports Training Department, Shanghai Martial Arts Sports Management Center/Shanghai Health Qigong Management Center, Shanghai, China. <sup>6</sup> Inpatient Department, Shanghai Civil Affairs Geriatric Hospital, Shanghai, China. <sup>7</sup> Chinese Qigong Laboratory, Shanghai Qigong Research Institute, Shanghai, China. Electronic address: zhaoxttcm@163.com.
Conference/Journal: Complement Ther Clin Pract
Date published: 2023 Feb 1
Other: Volume ID: 50 , Pages: 101679 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2022.101679. , Word Count: 408

With the increasing incidence and mortality of lung cancer, ground-glass nodules (GGNs) have become an ongoing public health concern. In clinical practice, the physical and psychological distress of GGN patients is easy to overlook during the follow-up after diagnosis. Such patients typically have limited medical options and few of these options involve mind-body exercises.

The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effectiveness of the mind-body exercise Baduanjin on physical and psychological outcomes among GGN patients.

We conducted a prospective, non-randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03420885).

This trial was conducted at three medical sites, both located in Shanghai, China, between April 2017 and January 2020.

Patients with GGN.

Sixty GGN participants were divided into a health education control group only receiving health education (n = 30) and a Baduanjin intervention group receiving health education plus a Baduanjin training program (n = 30). Both groups were treated for 16 weeks.

Outcome measurements:
Outcomes were assessed at baseline and week 16. The primary outcomes included pulmonary function (FVC, FVC%, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEF) and psychological condition (SAS score, SDS score). The secondary outcome was quality of life (SF-36).

Compared with the health education control group, the Baduanjin intervention group had significant improvements in pulmonary function (FVC, FVC%, FEV1), psychological outcomes (SAS score, SDS score), and quality of life (SF-36). The significant differences in pre-intervention and post-intervention between groups were as follows: FVC (MD = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.10 to 0.33, P = 0), FVC% (MD = 6.90, 95%CI: 3.10 to 10.70, P = 0.001), FEV1 (MD = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.29, P = 0.001); SAS score (MD = -4.90, 95%CI: -8.28 to -1.52, P = 0.005), SDS score (MD = -5.83, 95%CI: -9.46 to -2.21, P = 0.002); physical component summary (PCS) of SF-36 (MD = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.54 to 7.51, P = 0), mental component summary (MCS) of SF-36 (MD = 5.78, 95%CI: 2.64 to 8.92, P = 0.001). Linear regression analysis was performed to study the influence of confounder variables on the improvements of primary outcomes, and no significant change was found. Moreover, Pearson correlation coefficient analysis demonstrated that ameliorations in lung function (FVC, FVC%, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and PEF) were significantly associated with a decrease in anxious symptoms and depressive symptoms.

GGN patients in the Baduanjin intervention group showed greater benefits in pulmonary function and psychological outcomes than those in the health education control group, and the effectiveness was stable. The findings support Baduanjin as an effective, safe, enjoyable, and promising complementary intervention for management of GGN in patients with physical and psychological distress.

Keywords: Baduanjin; Clinical trial; Patients with ground-glass nodules; Psychological condition; Pulmonary function.

PMID: 36399997 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2022.101679