Tai Chi increases functional connectivity and decreases chronic fatigue syndrome: A pilot intervention study with machine learning and fMRI analysis

Author: Kang Wu1,2, Yuanyuan Li1, Yihuai Zou1, Yi Ren1, Yahui Wang1, Xiaojie Hu1, Yue Wang1, Chen Chen1, Mengxin Lu1, Lingling Xu1, Linlu Wu1, Kuangshi Li1
Affiliation: <sup>1</sup> Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China. <sup>2</sup> Xinhua Hospital, Tongzhou District, Beijing, China.
Conference/Journal: PLoS One
Date published: 2022 Dec 1
Other: Volume ID: 17 , Issue ID: 12 , Pages: e0278415 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0278415. , Word Count: 322

The latest guidance on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) recommends exercise therapy. Tai Chi, an exercise method in traditional Chinese medicine, is reportedly helpful for CFS. However, the mechanism remains unclear. The present longitudinal study aimed to detect the influence of Tai Chi on functional brain connectivity in CFS.

The study recruited 20 CFS patients and 20 healthy controls to receive eight sessions of Tai Chi exercise over a period of one month. Before the Tai Chi exercise, an abnormal functional brain connectivity for recognizing CFS was generated by a linear support vector model. The prediction ability of the structure was validated with a random forest classification under a permutation test. Then, the functional connections (FCs) of the structure were analyzed in the large-scale brain network after Tai Chi exercise while taking the changes in the Fatigue Scale-14, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) as clinical effectiveness evaluation. The registration number is ChiCTR2000032577 in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.

1) The score of the Fatigue Scale-14 decreased significantly in the CFS patients, and the scores of the PSQI and SF-36 changed significantly both in CFS patients and healthy controls. 2) Sixty FCs were considered significant to discriminate CFS (P = 0.000, best accuracy 90%), with 80.5% ± 9% average accuracy. 3) The FCs that were majorly related to the left frontoparietal network (FPN) and default mode network (DMN) significantly increased (P = 0.0032 and P = 0.001) in CFS patients after Tai Chi exercise. 4) The change of FCs in the left FPN and DMN were positively correlated (r = 0.40, P = 0.012).

These results demonstrated that the 60 FCs we found using machine learning could be neural biomarkers to discriminate between CFS patients and healthy controls. Tai Chi exercise may improve CFS patients' fatigue syndrome, sleep quality, and body health statement by strengthening the functional connectivity of the left FPN and DMN under these FCs. The findings promote our understanding of Tai Chi exercise's value in treating CFS.

PMID: 36454926 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0278415