Role of brain-gut-muscle axis in human health and energy homeostasis

Author: Yunju Yin1,2, Qiuping Guo2, Xihong Zhou2, Yehui Duan2, Yuhuan Yang1,2, Saiming Gong1,2, Mengmeng Han2,3, Yating Liu1, Zhikang Yang1, Qinghua Chen1, Fengna Li2,3
Affiliation: <sup>1</sup> College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China. <sup>2</sup> Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutritional Physiology and Metabolic Process, Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center for Healthy Livestock and Poultry Production, National Engineering Laboratory for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central, Ministry of Agriculture, Changsha, China. <sup>3</sup> College of Advanced Agricultural Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
Conference/Journal: Front Nutr
Date published: 2022 Oct 6
Other: Volume ID: 9 , Pages: 947033 , Special Notes: doi: 10.3389/fnut.2022.947033. , Word Count: 279

The interrelationship between brain, gut and skeletal muscle plays a key role in energy homeostasis of the body, and is becoming a hot topic of research. Intestinal microbial metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids (BAs) and tryptophan metabolites, communicate with the central nervous system (CNS) by binding to their receptors. In fact, there is a cross-talk between the CNS and the gut. The CNS, under the stimulation of pressure, will also affect the stability of the intestinal system, including the local intestinal transport, secretion and permeability of the intestinal system. After the gastrointestinal tract collects information about food absorption, it sends signals to the central system through vagus nerve and other channels to stimulate the secretion of brain-gut peptide and produce feeding behavior, which is also an important part of maintaining energy homeostasis. Skeletal muscle has receptors for SCFAs and BAs. Therefore, intestinal microbiota can participate in skeletal muscle energy metabolism and muscle fiber conversion through their metabolites. Skeletal muscles can also communicate with the gut system during exercise. Under the stimulation of exercise, myokines secreted by skeletal muscle causes the secretion of intestinal hormones, and these hormones can act on the central system and affect food intake. The idea of the brain-gut-muscle axis is gradually being confirmed, and at present it is important for regulating energy homeostasis, which also seems to be relevant to human health. This article focuses on the interaction of intestinal microbiota, central nervous, skeletal muscle energy metabolism, and feeding behavior regulation, which will provide new insight into the diagnostic and treatment strategies for obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases.

Keywords: CNS; appetite; energy; glucose; microbiome; muscle.

PMID: 36276808 PMCID: PMC9582522 DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2022.947033