Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulators: a review of past, present and future devices

Author: Lei Wang1, Yu Wang1, Yifei Wang1, Fang Wang1, Jinling Zhang1, Shaoyuan Li1, Mozheng Wu1, Liang Li1, Peijing Rong1
Affiliation: <sup>1</sup> Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.
Conference/Journal: Expert Rev Med Devices
Date published: 2021 Dec 22
Other: Special Notes: doi: 10.1080/17434440.2022.2020095. , Word Count: 183

As an emerging neuromodulation therapy, transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) has been proven to be safe and effective for epilepsy, major depressive disorders, insomnia, glucose metabolic disorders, pain, stroke, post stroke rehabilitation, anxiety, fear, cognitive impairment, cardiovascular disorders, tinnitus, Prader-Willi Syndrome and COVID-19.

Areas covered:
Although the history of taVNS is only two decades, the devices carrying taVNS technique have been constantly updated. Especially in recent years, the development of taVNS devices has presented a new trend. To conclude, the development of taVNS devices has entered a new era, thus the update speed and quality of taVNS devices will be considerably improved in the future. This article reviewed the history and classification of taVNS devices.

Expert opinion:
The correlation between the effectiveness and stimulation parameters from taVNS devices still remains unclear. There is a lack of standard or harmonization among different taVNS devices. Strategies, including further comparative research and establishment of standard, have been recommended in this article to promote the future development of taVNS devices.

Keywords: Auricular acupuncture; Auriculotherapy; Neuromodulation; Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation; Vagus nerve stimulation.

PMID: 34937487 DOI: 10.1080/17434440.2022.2020095