Time-dependent effects of inspiratory muscle training and detraining on cardiac autonomic control in older women

Author: Gabriel Dias Rodrigues1, Pedro Dal Lago2, Pedro Paulo da Silva Soares3
Affiliation: <sup>1</sup> Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil. <sup>2</sup> Department of Physical Therapy, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Brazil. <sup>3</sup> Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil. Electronic address: ppssoares@id.uff.br.
Conference/Journal: Exp Gerontol
Date published: 2021 Apr 14
Other: Special Notes: doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2021.111357. , Word Count: 216

Inspiratory muscle training improved maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and vagal-mediated heart rate variability (HRV) in older women. However, it is unknown what occurs if the training is discontinued (detraining protocol). The aim of this study was to investigate the IMT and detraining effects on resting HRV in older women. Twelve healthy older women (60-72 yrs) enrolled in home-based IMT at 50% MIP (IMT-group) or placebo at 5% MIP (Sham-group) protocol for 4 weeks using a mechanical pressure threshold loading device. The participants were not engaged in any other exercise protocol at that time. During IMT and Sham interventions, the inspiratory load was adjusted weekly by the actual MIP and resting heart rate variability (HRV) evaluated. After training cessation (4 weeks of detraining), participants returned to the lab for HRV and MIP recordings. Adherence to IMT was superior to 95%. IMT increased MIP (23 ± 8 cmH2O) and vagal-mediated HRV (normalized HF; 37 ± 8%), following by the reduction of sympatho-vagal balance (LF/HF), from the second week to the end of the protocol compared to sham-group. After detraining, IMT-group reduced MIP (-23 ± 8 cmH2O) and vagal-mediated HRV (normalized HF; -38 ± 14%) returning to baseline values. In conclusion, MIP and vagal-HRV improvements induced by IMT were reversed by four weeks of detraining.

Keywords: Aging; Autonomic nervous system; Breathing exercises; Heart rate variability; Respiratory muscles.

PMID: 33864832 DOI: 10.1016/j.exger.2021.111357