Author: Jie Zhao1, Janita Pak Chun Chau2, Suzanne Hoi Shan Lo3, Kai Chow Choi3, Surui Liang3
Affiliation: <sup>1</sup> The Nethersole School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 8/F, Esther Lee Building, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong; School of Nursing, Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming, Yunnan, China. <sup>2</sup> The Nethersole School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 8/F, Esther Lee Building, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong. Electronic address: email@example.com. <sup>3</sup> The Nethersole School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 8/F, Esther Lee Building, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong.
Conference/Journal: Int J Nurs Stud
Date published: 2021 Mar 3
Other: Volume ID: 118 , Pages: 103911 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2021.103911. , Word Count: 373
Impaired physical mobility refers to a limitation in independent and purposeful physical movement of the body or one or more extremities. Physical restrictions result in negative consequences on an individual's physical and psychosocial functions. Sitting Tai Chi, a derivative form of traditional Tai Chi, has been found to increase the flexibility of all joints involved and enhance the ability to perform physical activity. However, the evidence of sitting Tai Chi on physical and psychosocial health outcomes on individuals with impaired physical mobility is limited.
To critically synthesize evidence that evaluates the effects of sitting Tai Chi on health outcomes among individuals with impaired physical mobility and to identify implementation strategies for the sitting Tai Chi intervention.
Searches were performed across 11 English and two Chinese databases systematically from inception to January 2020. Randomised controlled trials and non-randomised controlled trials, written in English or Chinese were included. Two independent reviewers screened all eligible studies, appraised risk of bias, and extracted the data. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager 5.4 and narrative syntheses were performed where meta-analysis was inappropriate. The certainty of evidence was assessed using Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation profiler Guideline Development Tool. This study was registered in PROSPERO.
A total of 1,446 records were generated and 11 studies were eligible for inclusion. Meta-analysis reported a statistically significant effect size favouring sitting Tai Chi on depressive symptoms (SMD: -1.53, 95% CI: -2.81 to -0.21, 2 studies; very low quality), heart rate (MD: -5.72, 95% CI: -11.16 to -0.29, 2 studies; low quality) and social domain of quality of life (MD: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.66 to 2.19, 3 studies; low quality).
Sitting Tai Chi was found to have favourable effects on depressive symptoms, heart rate, and social domain of quality of life of individuals with impaired physical mobility. Very low to low quality evidence does not support the effectiveness of sitting Tai Chi on dynamic sitting balance, handgrip strength, and the physical and psychological domains of quality of life. There was limited evidence to suggest the best implementation strategies for the sitting Tai Chi intervention. It is anticipated that more well-designed studies will continue developing high quality evidence in this field.
Keywords: Frail elderly; Frailty; Mobility limitation; Neurological rehabilitation; Spinal cord injuries; Stroke; Systematic review; Tai Ji.
PMID: 33751992 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2021.103911