Modeling the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory's Mindful Reappraisal Hypothesis: Replication with Longitudinal Data from a Randomized Controlled Study

Author: Adam W Hanley1,2, Michael de Vibe3, Ida Solhaug4, Norman Farb5, Phillipe R Goldin6, James J Gross7, Eric L Garland1,2,8
Affiliation: <sup>1</sup> College of Social Work, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. <sup>2</sup> Center on Mindfulness and Integrative Health Intervention Development, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. <sup>3</sup> Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Oslo, Norway. <sup>4</sup> Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway. <sup>5</sup> Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Toronto, ON, Canada. <sup>6</sup> Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing, University of California - Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA. <sup>7</sup> Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. <sup>8</sup> Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
Conference/Journal: Stress Health
Date published: 2021 Feb 19
Other: Special Notes: doi: 10.1002/smi.3035. , Word Count: 221

The Mindfulness to Meaning Theory provides a detailed process model of the mechanisms by which mindfulness may promote well-being. Central to the Mindfulness to Meaning Theory is the mindful reappraisal hypothesis (MRH), which suggests mindfulness training promotes well-being by facilitating positive reappraisal. Emerging evidence from interconnected domains of research supports the MRH. However, it remains unclear whether mindful reappraisal continues to develop after a mindfulness training course and whether this continued development encourages well-being over time. As such, this randomized control study compared participants receiving a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course with participants receiving no mindfulness training on positive reappraisal use and well-being over the course of six years. Latent growth curve modeling revealed that mindfulness training increased well-being by significantly increasing the trajectory of positive reappraisal over time. The MRH was then unpacked by examining whether MBSR involvement also stimulated decentering and broadened awareness, core components of the MRH. Multivariate path analysis revealed that mindfulness training increased decentering, which in turn broadened awareness, which was then associated with positive reappraisal, ultimately promoting well-being. Taken together, these findings suggest that MBSR cultivates a downstream cascade of adaptive psychological processes that continue to promote quality of life six-years after mindfulness training. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Mindfulness; Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction; Positive Reappraisal; Well-Being.

PMID: 33607697 DOI: 10.1002/smi.3035