Vagus Nerve and Vagus Nerve Stimulation, a Comprehensive Review: Part II.

Author: Yuan H1, Silberstein SD1
Affiliation: <sup>1</sup>Jefferson Headache Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Conference/Journal: Headache.
Date published: 2016 Feb
Other: Volume ID: 56 , Issue ID: 2 , Pages: 259-66 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1111/head.12650. Epub 2015 Sep 18. , Word Count: 155

The development of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) began in the 19th century. Although it did not work well initially, it introduced the idea that led to many VNS-related animal studies for seizure control. In the 1990s, with the success of several early clinical trials, VNS was approved for the treatment of refractory epilepsy, and later for the refractory depression. To date, several novel electrical stimulating devices are being developed. New invasive devices are designed to automate the seizure control and for use in heart failure. Non-invasive transcutaneous devices, which stimulate auricular VN or carotid VN, are also undergoing clinical trials for treatment of epilepsy, pain, headache, and others. Noninvasive VNS (nVNS) exhibits greater safety profiles and seems similarly effective to their invasive counterpart. In this review, we discuss the history and development of VNS, as well as recent progress in invasive and nVNS.

© 2015 American Headache Society.

KEYWORDS: vagus nerve; vagus nerve stimulation

PMID: 26381725 DOI: 10.1111/head.12650