Ultrasound treatment of neurological diseases--current and emerging applications.

Author: Leinenga G1, Langton C2, Nisbet R1, Götz J1
Affiliation: <sup>1</sup>Clem Jones Centre for Ageing Dementia Research, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia Campus, Brisbane, Queenland 4072, Australia. <sup>2</sup>Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove Campus, Brisbane, Queenland 4059, Australia.
Conference/Journal: Nat Rev Neurol.
Date published: 2016 Mar
Other: Volume ID: 12 , Issue ID: 3 , Pages: 161-74 , Special Notes: doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2016.13. Epub 2016 Feb 19. , Word Count: 186

Like cardiovascular disease and cancer, neurological disorders present an increasing challenge for an ageing population. Whereas nonpharmacological procedures are routine for eliminating cancer tissue or opening a blocked artery, the focus in neurological disease remains on pharmacological interventions. Setbacks in clinical trials and the obstacle of access to the brain for drug delivery and surgery have highlighted the potential for therapeutic use of ultrasound in neurological diseases, and the technology has proved useful for inducing focused lesions, clearing protein aggregates, facilitating drug uptake, and modulating neuronal function. In this Review, we discuss milestones in the development of therapeutic ultrasound, from the first steps in the 1950s to recent improvements in technology. We provide an overview of the principles of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound, for surgery and transient opening of the blood-brain barrier, and its application in clinical trials of stroke, Parkinson disease and chronic pain. We discuss the promising outcomes of safety and feasibility studies in preclinical models, including rodents, pigs and macaques, and efficacy studies in models of Alzheimer disease. We also consider the challenges faced on the road to clinical translation.

PMID: 26891768 DOI: 10.1038/nrneurol.2016.13