See Medical Imaging.
Radiation Therapy/Radio Therapy
High-definition Multileaf Collimator Radiosurgery System: In January 2008, the Palo Alto Medical Foundation in Palo Alto, CA became the first health care organization in the world with a new high-definition multileaf collimator (HD 120 MLC), an ultra-fine device for radiosurgery that shapes each treatment beam to match the exact contour of a tumor or other target. This technology allows doctors to treat brain tumors and cancer in all parts of the body with unsurpassed accuracy – all with fewer side effects, greater patient comfort and improved outcomes.
Radiosurgery is a non-invasive medical procedure in which high-energy X-rays are delivered to a target area within the body from a machine outside the body. With the HD120 MLC, which is part of PAMF’s Novalis Tx® radiosurgery system from Varian Medical Systems and BrainLab, patients receive an ultra-precise dose of high-intensity radiation – accurate within fractions of a centimeter – while avoiding the pain and complications associated with conventional “open” surgery. Palo Alto Medical Foundation March 2008 e-HealthNews Volume 5 Issue 3. Also see Radiosurgery and Cancers Treated with Radiosurgery.
A more general term for radiosurgery is Radio Frequency Ablation (RFA). Results show it to be extremely effective and can be used with advanced lung cancer where conventional surgery is not possible. Radio frequency ablation is a medical procedure where part of the electrical conduction system of the heart, tumor or other dysfunctional tissue is ablated using the heat generated from the high frequency alternating current. It essentially heats tumors and kills them. ( Radiofrequency ablation).
Radiofrequency ablation for treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. The use of thermal energy-based systems to treat uterine fibroids has resulted in a plethora of devices that are less invasive and potentially as effective in reducing symptoms as traditional options such as myomectomy. Most thermal ablation devices involve hyperthermia (heating of tissue), which entails the conversion of an external electromagnetic or ultrasound waves into intracellular mechanical energy, generating heat.
Radiofrequency ablation for treatment of renal tumors: technological principles and outcomes. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive, energy-based, needle-ablative treatment modality that is currently being used to treat small renal masses (SRMs) and offers advantages over extirpative techniques. RFA treats SRM with heat induced by the tissue impedance to radiofrequency current emitted from a needle probe within the SRM.
Another example of radiation therapy is the use of External Beam Radiation and Brachytherapy for Mesothelioma. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (APBI) also uses brachytherapy: Beating breast cancer - Targeted radiation shortens treatment, reduces side effects.
Radio telemetry enables monitoring of cardiovascular functions such as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate. A more general term for this is biotelemetry.
A Radioelectric Asymmetric Conveyer REAC-CRM device applies radiofrequency fields to body parts.
Radioelectric asymmetric stimulation of tissues as treatment for post-traumatic injury symptoms. For the past few years, treatment of contusions and associated symptoms, such as bruising, pain, and loss of function, has involved instrument-based therapies, ie, lasers, electromagnetic fields, and electrical stimulation. In this study, tissue optimization (TO) sessions were applied using a radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC) for the treatment of contusions and associated symptoms. REAC-TO is able to promote regeneration and repair processes in the human body.
External Beam Radiation Therapy Reduces Risk of Subsequent Mastectomy in Patients with Invasive Breast Cancer. Standard external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) provided a higher breast preservation rate than brachytherapy in women age 66 and older with invasive breast cancer.
Introduction to Raman Spectroscopy.
Vibrational spectroscopy: a tool being developed for the noninvasive monitoring of wound healing. Vibrational spectroscopy, specifically Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, offers the capability to accurately detect and identify the various molecules that compose the extracellular matrix during wound healing in their native state. The identified changes might provide the objective markers of wound healing, which can then be integrated with clinical characteristics to guide the management of wounds.
Neuroscientists Use Lightwaves to Improve Brain Tumor Surgery.
EM healing device utilizing radio transmission. Also see Healing with Electromedicine and Sound Therapies - Part 1. Royal Rife was persecuted by the existing medical establishment and his work was distroyed (see Suppression of Energy Medicine). His cure for cancer was discovered in the 1930's. It is only now starting to show up in treatments. For more complete information see: The Cancer Cure That Worked: 50 Years of Suppression.
Sacral nerve stimulation, also termed sacral neuromodulation, involves the implantation of a programmable stimulator subcutaneously which delivers low amplitude electrical stimulation via a lead to the sacral nerve to treat such complications as fecal incontinence.
Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) or acupuncture for the treatment for fecal incontinence: a clinical commentary. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) has become an established therapy worldwide for the treatment for fecal incontinence. A large number of papers have been published over the years, and SNS is generally considered very effective with improved continence and quality of life for most patients.
Scanning Kelvin Probe
The Scanning Kelvin Probe is a state-of-the-art device that measures electrical potential without actually touching the skin.
SCIO Frequency Healing Technology
The SCIO measures and balances the body's electro-physiological activity.
Shockwave therapy is a relatively new treatment option in orthopedic and rehabilitation medicine. Shockwaves (high frequency sound waves) are used to treat many orthopedic conditions, including plantar fasciitis (heel spurs), patellar tendinitis (jumper’s knee), lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow), medial epicondylitis (golfer’s elbow) and shoulder tendinitis. Multiple studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of shockwave therapy. Many have shown a positive response versus placebo treatment and others have shown no benefit over placebo. No studies have reported any significant side effects when utilized for orthopedic conditions. However, there are some orthopedic conditions for which this technology is contraindicated.
Shockwave Therapy - Southern California Orthopedic Institute
Pulse-vet.com - The veterinary use of shock wave therapy. White papers.
Peer-Reviewed Scientific Publications On High-Energy Extracorporeal Shock Wave for Musculoskeletal Conditions.
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders.
Elevation of tissue temperature via electromagnetic waves.
Effectiveness of thermal and athermal short-wave diathermy for the management of knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
The case for over-the-counter shortwave therapy: safe and effective devices for pain management. Pulsed shortwave diathermy, an electromagnetic therapy, has been in clinical use for acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain for many decades. Innovation, miniaturization and advances in technology have allowed for the development of a new generation of shortwave devices that deliver a localized, low fixed dose of shortwave therapy. Clinical research has shown that these novel shortwave devices can be used safely in order to reduce acute and chronic pain, as well as the need for pain medications. Their ease of use and safety profile make low-dose shortwave devices an attractive alternative, or adjunct therapy, to pharmacological-based pain therapies.
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
A medical imaging technique using gamma rays. A neuroimaging application of SPECT is the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during a task, for example: Neuroimaging during Trance State: A Contribution to the Study of Dissociation.
Neuromuscular electrostimulation techniques: historical aspects and current possibilities in treatment of pain and muscle waisting.
Diagnostic device that can detect minute magnetic fields. SQUIDS map biomagnetic fields produced by physiological processes in the body. One example is recording the magnetic field of the heart (magnetocardiography). Since thinking causes electrical signals in the brain which in turn produce magnetic fields, it's possible to detect thoughts, even at a distance, using SQUIDS.
Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG): moving forward in the establishment of clinical reference data by advanced biomagnetic instrumentation and analysis. Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is a non-invasive technique measuring magnetic signals generated by fetal heart activity.
A form of electromagnetic radiation used in physics and biomedical research.
Thermoacoustic Tomography (TAT)
The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date. The terahertz region lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such that it is strongly attenuated by water and very sensitive to water content. Terahertz radiation has very low photon energy and thus it does not pose any ionization hazard for biological tissues. Because of these characteristic properties, there has been an increasing interest in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for biological applications within the last few years and more and more terahertz spectra are being reported, including spectroscopic studies of cancer. The presence of cancer often causes increased blood supply to affected tissues and a local increase in tissue water content may be observed: this acts as a natural contrast mechanism for terahertz imaging of cancer. Furthermore the structural changes that occur in affected tissues have also been shown to contribute to terahertz image contrast. This paper introduces terahertz technology and provides a short review of recent advances in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy techniques. In particular investigations relating to the potential of terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis will be highlighted.
New Therapy for Depression. A type of brain stimulation caused by a mild electric current that appears to have minimal negative side effects is showing promise as a potential treatment for major depression, according to several studies. The experimental therapy, known as transcranial direct current stimulation, or tDCS, involves a low-level charge about one-400th of that used in electroshock treatment. Unlike electroshock (also called electroconvulsive therapy or ECT), which is administered for a few seconds to patients under anesthesia, tDCS is given for 20 to 30 minutes continuously while patients are conscious.
Transcranial direct current stimulation ameliorates tactile sensory deficit in multiple sclerosis.
Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a treatment for psychiatric disorders: A comprehensive review Stimulates the brain with magnetics fields. Deep TMS is being used to treat drug-resistant major depressive disorder and is being tested to treat a very wide range of neurological, psychiatric and medical conditions.
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).
Transcranial photon migration spectroscopy
Chemical absorption of laser light shone through the skull.
Transcutaneous Electrical Acupuncture Stimulation (TEAS)
Used for treating nerve disorders such as knee osteoarthritis and managing pain. One criticism of TENS is that its effects are often temporary. See Healing with Electromedicine and Sound Therapies (especially the 'Frequency Specific Microcurrent' section) for a more in-depth discussion. Recent research suggests that TENS over acupoints on lung function and dyspnoea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease warrants further investigation. For more information, see the Qigong and Energy Medicine Database™.
Chinese researchers confirm effectiveness of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy. Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (t-VNS) uses the fact that a branch of the vagus nerve in the outer ear can be stimulated through the skin (transcutaneous) with electrical impulses. This stimulation passes along particular nerve fibers to reach the brainstem to consecutively activate higher centers of the brain associated with an anticonvulsive (anti-seizure) effect.
Use of sound waves for diagnosis and treatment. Ultrasonography is nearly as accurate as CT scans, but does not cause radiation damage. Ultrasonic lithotripsy is the use of high frequency sound waves delivered through an electronic probe break up kidney stones.
Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in the treatment of nonunions. Low-intensity ultrasound has demonstrated an acceleration of bone healing and more profound callus formation in animal and human clinical experiments. In this study, the effect of pulsed, low-intensity ultrasound was determined in established nonunion cases.
Mechanical means to improve bone strength: ultrasound and vibration. One method that has been used to improve fracture healing is low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). LIPUS has been US Food and Drug Administration approved for several years, and some preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that fracture healing can be improved by this technique, which appears to be generally safe.
Star Trek Medical Device Uses Ultrasound To Seal Punctured Lungs. High intensity ultrasound successfully used to seal punctured lungs. Also see Shockwave Therapy.
The Role of Endobronchial Ultrasound in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Staging: A Comprehensive Review. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) technology is a relatively new bronchoscopic method of visualizing the tracheobronchial tree, the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, and the mediastinal structures, with a particular role in lung cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment.
Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS) Biopsy of Mediastinal Lymph Nodes. Mediastinoscopy is the ‘gold standard’ method for determining the presence of nodal metastases in the mediastinum. Generally performed as an outpatient surgical procedure, it is associated with a low rate of serious adverse effects (<1%) and the procedure is highly accurate, with false negative rates reported to be between 6% and 9%. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of mediastinal nodes offers a less invasive alternative for histologic sampling of the mediastinal nodes. The procedure has been widely adopted by pulmonologists and is poised to replace mediastinoscopy in the future. For thoracic surgeons, the technique can be easily learned and it may be important to do so if our specialty is to maintain its traditional and important role in the diagnosis and staging of thoracic malignancies.
Stopping Internal Bleeding Without Surgery. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) stops internal bleeding without surgery:
High-tech acupuncture made in Austria--cerebral circulation. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography uses ultrasound waves to measure the specific effects on cerbral hemodynamics caused by acupuncture stimulation.
Low-pressure pulsed focused ultrasound with microbubbles promotes an anticancer immunological response. High-intensity focused-ultrasound (HIFU) has been successfully employed for thermal ablation of tumors in clinical settings. Continuous- or pulsed-mode HIFU may also induce a host antitumor immune response, mainly through expansion of antigen-presenting cells in response to increased cellular debris and through increased macrophage activation/infiltration. Here we demonstrated that another form of focused ultrasound delivery, using low-pressure, pulsed-mode exposure in the presence of microbubbles (MBs), may also trigger an antitumor immunological response and inhibit tumor growth.
Infrasound Sensitizes Human Glioblastoma Cells to Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis. Infrasound at the frequency of Qigong external healing has been shown to enhance the chemotherapeutic effects of a chemotherapy drug:
Electromagnetic Acoustic Imaging (EMAI). Electromagnetic acoustic imaging is a new imaging technique that uses long-wavelength RF electromagnetic (EM) waves to induce ultrasound emission.
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering: Ultrasound: Diagnostic and Interventional. The primary focus of this program is the improvement of technologies for diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic uses of ultrasound. The diagnostic ultrasound program includes, but is not limited to the design, development and construction of transducers, transducer arrays, and transducer materials, innovative image acquisition and display methods, innovative signal processing methods and devices, and optoacoustic and thermoacoustic technology. It also includes the development of image-enhancement devices and methods, such as contrast agents, image and data presentation and mapping methods, such as functional imaging and image fusion.
The interventional ultrasound program includes the use of ultrasound for therapeutic use, or as an adjunct for enhancement of non-ultrasound therapy applications. Examples include, but are not limited to, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as a non-invasive or minimally invasive interventional surgical or therapy tool, and as an adjunct interventional tool. It also includes the use of ultrasound contrast agents for therapy and for targeted drug delivery, and the use of ultrasound for image-guided surgery, biopsy, and other interventions.
A laser may be used to break up a kidney stone.
Using light to monitor low-level functioning of a system. Also see Raman Spectroscopy and NIRS.
Intra-operative optical diagnostics with vibrational spectroscopy. Currently, vibrational spectroscopy techniques (both Raman and infrared) complement the standard methods for tissue diagnostics. Vibrational spectroscopy has the potential for intra-operative use, because it can provide a biochemically based profile of tissue in real time and without requiring additional contrast agents, which may perturb the tissue under investigation. In addition, no electric potential needs to be applied, and the measurements are not affected by electromagnetic fields.
A highly effective electronic procedure to detect all allergy conditions by monitoring skin impedance at acupuncture points.
An eye functionality test which monitors brain responses to visual stimulai. Also see the more general term Electrophysiology.
The voltage clamp is used by electrophysiologists to measure the ion currents across the membrane of excitable cells, such as neurons, while holding the membrane voltage at a set level.
The Emerging Science of Biolectromagnetic Medicine
Bioelectric Medicine is coming of age in the 21st Century. The explosive growth in understanding the relationship between electromagnetism and physiology is creating amazing non-invasive diagnostic and treatment tools.
Virtual Reality Therapy. Patients can get relief from pain or overcome their phobias by immersing themselves in computer-generated worlds.
Virtual-Reality Video Game To Help Burn Patients Play Their Way To Pain Relief. The virtual-reality system eases pain of treatment by immersing burn patients in a wintry, computer-generated environment. Its interactive, multi-sensory, features put patients in a deep freeze of distraction, leaving less attention for the processing of incoming pain signals. It’s similar to what has been done with music, movies and even two-dimensional video games, but more effective because it involves problem-solving activities that emphasize coolness.
Epigenetic Modulation of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis by Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fieldsstimulated hippocampal neurogenesis.
Students play video game with their minds at Duke.
Electromagnetic fields instantaneously modulate nitric oxide signaling in challenged biological systems. Electromagnetic fields found to non-invasively aid healing.
Body Area Networks (BAN) - the cutting edge in health monitoring technologies. Most of us are familiar with LANs (local area networks) and WANs (wide-area networks) for computers. Now there's an entirely new class of networks that is being envisioned to monitor the health of your body via intrabody communications. Portable EEgs are an example of this emerging technology (see Easing Brain Fatigue With a Walk in the Park).
Bioelectric modulation of wound healing in a 3D in vitro model of tissue-engineered bone. Endogenous electric signals, such as spatial gradients of resting potential among non-excitable cells in vivo, have also been shown to be important in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and tissue regeneration, and may therefore have as-yet unexplored therapeutic potential for regulating wound healing in bone tissue.
Biophoton transfer along the nerves of rats has been demonstrated experimentally. Different spectral light stimulation (infrared, red, yellow, blue, green and white) at one end of the spinal sensory or motor nerve roots resulted in a significant increase in the biophotonic activity at the other end. Such effects could be significantly inhibited by procaine (a regional anaesthetic for neural conduction block) or classic metabolic inhibitors, suggesting that light stimulation can generate biophotons that conduct along the neural fibers, probably as neural communication signals. The mechanism of biophotonic conduction along neural fibers may be mediated by protein-protein biophotonic interactions.
Wireless patch sensor for remote monitoring of heart rate, respiration, activity, and falls. Unobtrusive continuous monitoring of important vital signs and activity metrics has the potential to provide remote health monitoring, at-home screening, and rapid notification of critical events such as heart attacks, falls, or respiratory distress.
Magnets may cure acid reflux. A small band of magnets placed around the valve just above the stomach to prevent acid from rising into the esophagus or throat expands to allow food to travel from the esophagus into the stomach but also tightens the valve so that acid does not rise up out of the stomach. Once the band is in place, patients can resume a normal diet without any reflux symptoms.
Optical magnetic imaging of living cells. This research demonstrates magnetic imaging of living cells under ambient laboratory conditions and with sub-cellular spatial resolution (400 nanometres), using an optically detected magnetic field imaging array consisting of a nanometre-scale layer of nitrogen-vacancy colour centres implanted at the surface of a diamond chip.
Magnetic sensing via ultrasonic excitation. Magnetization on the surface of ferromagnetic metals is temporally modulated with the rf frequency of the irradiated ultrasonic waves, and the near-field components emitted from the focal point of the ultrasonic beam are detected.
Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) and wound healing: implication of cytokines as biological mediators. Research supports an anti-inflammatory effect of EMFs by the modulation of cytokine profiles that drive the transition from a chronic pro-inflammatory state to an anti-inflammatory state of the healing process. In this review, we focus on the effect of EMFs on skin wound healing showing emerging details of the anti-inflammatory effects of EMFs, with a view to cytokines as candidate biomarkers.
Magnetic Medicine. Nanoparticles and magnetic fields train immune cells to fight cancer in mice.
Food Quality and Safety
Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: An overview
. This paper overviews the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts related to assessing the quality of different meat products by electromagnetic waves and examines the potential for their deployment. The main meat quality traits that can be assessed using electromagnetic waves are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of techniques, from low frequency, high frequency impedance measurement, microwaves, NMR, IR and UV light, to X-ray interaction, involves a wide range of physical interactions between the electromagnetic wave and the sample.
Electron Holography Produces First Image of a Single Protein. This research demonstrates the imaging of proteins using low energy electron beams that don’t destroy biomolecules. Low energy electron beams have a wavelength of about a nanometer with is perfect for measuring proteins as well as holography.
Electron Holography: phases matter. Phases have to be determined precisely, because they encode the most dominant object properties, such as charge distributions and electromagnetic fields.
Terahertz nanotechnology. Terahertz (THZ) spectroscopy techniques are becoming increasingly important in nanomaterial characterization. In contrast to hazardous x-ray radiation, in medical imaging, the advantage of THz radiation is safety, because its energy is much lower than the ionization energy of biological molecules.
Terahertz detection and imaging systems. Field effect transistors (FETs) based on semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are highly-sensitive room-temperature plasma-wave broadband terahertz (THz) detectors.
Terahertz molecular imaging. The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed in this paper. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves.
Transient and selective suppression of neural activity with infrared light. It is possible to selectively and transiently inhibit electrically-initiated axonal activation, as well as to both block or enhance the propagation of action potentials of specific motor neurons. Thus, in addition to previously shown excitation, we demonstrate an optical method of suppressing components of the nervous system with functional spatiotemporal precision.
The mission of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) is to improve health by leading the development and accelerating the application of biomedical technologies. The Institute is committed to integrating the physical and engineering sciences with the life sciences to advance basic research and medical care. This is achieved through: research and development of new biomedical imaging and bioengineering techniques and devices to fundamentally improve the detection, treatment, and prevention of disease; enhancing existing imaging and bioengineering modalities; supporting related research in the physical and mathematical sciences; encouraging research and development in multidisciplinary areas; supporting studies to assess the effectiveness and outcomes of new biologics, materials, processes, devices, and procedures; developing technologies for early disease detection and assessment of health status; and developing advanced imaging and engineering techniques for conducting biomedical research at multiple scales.
Magnetic, Biomagnetic and Bioelectric Devices.
This program supports technological development of magnetic, biomagnetic and bioelectric devices, e.g., EEG, MEG, etc. Examples include (but are not restricted to) novel detectors, increased sensitivity and spatial resolution, improved reconstruction algorithms, multiplexing with other imaging techniques, etc.
Imaging Technique Helps Improve Outcome for Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. Clinicians routinely monitor electrical signals from the brains of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients to assess the response to treatments such as anti-seizure drugs. However, determining the specific location of injuries, where abnormal electrical activity is generated, has remained elusive. Researchers combined several imaging technologies to track abnormal electrical signals to the specific injury site. Known as inverse localization, the technique promises to enhance patient-specific monitoring and treatment, optimize surgical effectiveness, and improve clinical outcomes for those suffering from traumatic brain injury.
Professional Societies Researching Energy-Based Medical Technologies and Therapies
The EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) and the International Society for Brain Electromagnetic Topography (ISBET) focus on all types of electrical and magnetic brain activity. The International Society for Neuro-Imaging in Psychiatry (ISNIP) specializes in structural and functional brain imaging, such as fMRI. The Evoked Potentials International Conference concentrates on brain function studies based on evoked responses.
EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS). The primary goal of ECNS is to further the clinical practice of classic electroencephalography (EEG), quantitative EEG (QEEG), evoked potentials, magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), polysomnography (sleep EEG), and EEG Neurofeedback from the professional, scientific, and economic standpoints. The ECNS is an international scientific and educational organization dedicated to disseminating knowledge regarding the latest scientific advances in the above mentioned fields of electrophysiology as they relate to the understanding, treatment, and prevention of Neurobehavioral disorders including, but not limited to, head injury, epilepsy, pain syndromes, movement disorders, cerebrovascular disorders, metabolic and degenerative disorders, thought disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality and substance dependence disorders.
International Society for Neuroimaging in Psychiatry (ISNIP). ISNIP is an international non-profit scientific and educational organization dedicated to disseminating knowledge regarding the latest scientific advances in the field of Neuroimaging in Psychiatry and related fields and promote the understanding, treatment, and prevention of neuropsychiatric diseases.